(1). Thomas Wentworth Higginson, "The Character of the Buddha," The Index 3 (16 March 1872), 83. Higginson (1823-1911) was a reformer, lecturer, and author. His religious position grew increasingly liberal as the years passed. He served as a Unitarian minister briefly (1847-49) and later aligned himself with New England Transcendentalism and the Free Religious Association.

(2). For a more extended analysis of this early period (1844-77), see my The American Encounter with Buddhism, 1844-1912: Victorian Culture and the Limits of Dissent (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992), 1-25. On the emergence of the Buddha as an historical figure see Philip C. Almond, "The Buddha in the West: From Myth to History," Religion 16 (Oct. 1986): 305-22. For an overview of the rise of Buddhist studies see J.W. deJong, "A Brief History of Buddhist Studies in Europe and America," The Eastern Buddhist n.s. 7 (May 1974): 55-106; n.s. 7 (Oct. 1974): 49-82. On Transcendentalist interest in Asian religions see Arthur Christy, The Orient in American Transcendentalism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1932); Carl T. Jackson, The Oriental Religions and American Thought (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1981), 45-84, 123-40; and Arthur Versluis, American Transcendentalism and Asian Religions (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993).

(3). deJong, "Brief History." Burnouf was only one of the founders of Buddhist studies. As Guy Welbon has argued, the others included Henry Thomas Colebrooke (1765-1837) and Brian Houghton Hodgson (1800-90), both from Britain, and a Hungarian explorer and scholar, Alexander Csoma de Körös (1784-1842). Other European scholars such as Robert Caesar Childers, Albrecht Weber, Jules Barthélemy Saint-Hilaire, and F. Max Müller influenced the American discussion. So did European missionaries such as Robert Spence Hardy and James D'Alwis. See Guy Welbon, The Buddhist Nirvana and Its Western Interpreters (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968).

(4). Edward E. Salisbury, "Memoir on the History of Buddhism," Journal of the American Oriental Society 1 (1843-49): 81-135. [Henry David Thoreau, ed.], "The Preaching of the Buddha," The Dial 4 (Jan. 1844): 391-401. On that piece see Roger C. Mueller, "A Significant Buddhist Translation by Thoreau," The Thoreau Society Bulletin (Winter 1977): 1-2. Mueller corrects earlier misunderstandings about the source of the selection in the Dial: Thoreau translated the passages not from Eugène Burnouf's 1844 book but from two articles by that French scholar which were published in Paris the year before in La revue indépendante.

(5). On the rise of the university in the nineteenth century, see Laurence R. Veysey, The Emergence of the American University (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965). On Protestant responses to Asian religions see Sydney E. Ahlstrom, The Protestant Encounter with World Religions (Beloit, Wis.: Beloit College, 1962). On Protestant foreign missions in particular, see William R. Hutchison, Errand to the World: American Protestant Thought and Foreign Missions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987). Unitarianism is a liberal denomination that emerged from New England Congregationalism in the nineteenth century. The best historical overview is David Robinson, The Unitarians and the Universalists (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1985). On the history of Transcendentalism the best overview is still probably Octavius Brooks Frothingham, Transcendentalism in New England: A History (1876; Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1972). Less well known than the Transcendentalist movement, the Free Religious Association was founded in Boston in 1867 by radical Unitarians, Transcendentalists, and others who found even Unitarianism too conservative for their tastes. On that group see Stow Persons, Free Religion: An American Faith (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1947). On Free Religion's interest in Asian traditions see Jackson, Oriental Religions, 103-22.

(6). My account of the American Oriental Society is taken from the pages of its journal and the records printed there regarding its founding, officers, members, and purposes. I also consulted biographical material on the key figures I mention, too many sources to list here. On the AOS, also see Joseph C. Kiger, ed., Research Institutions and Learned Societies (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1982): 92-93. Salisbury's second article on Buddhism was: "M. Burnouf on the History of Buddhism in India," Journal of the American Oriental Society 1 (1843-49): 275-98. Henry Clarke Warren, "On the So-Called Chain of Causation of the Buddhists," Journal of the American Oriental Society 16 (Apr. 1893): xxvii-xxx. E. Washburn Hopkins, "The Buddhistic Rule against Eating Meat," Journal of the American Oriental Society 27 (July-Dec. 1906): 455-64. For information on the 47 papers read at the annual meeting in 1898 see Journal of the American Oriental Society 19 (1898). On the wide interest in Buddhism during the late-Victorian period see Tweed, American Encounter with Buddhism, 26-47.

(7). Henry C. Warren, Buddhism in Translations (1896; New York: Atheneum, 1979).

(8). E. Washburn Hopkins, The Religions of India, Handbooks on the History of Religions, No. 1 (Boston: Ginn, 1895); E. Washburn Hopkins, The History of Religions (New York: Macmillan, 1918).

(9). On Jenks's role in founding the AOS see Dictionary of American Biography, s.v. "William Jenks."

(10). Samuel Wells Williams, The Middle Kingdom: A Survey of the Geography, Government, Education, Social Life, Arts, Religion of the Chinese Empire . . ., 2 vols. (New York and London: Wiley and Putnam, 1848). Francis Mason, "Hints on the Introduction of Buddhism into Burmah," Journal of the American Oriental Society 2 (1851): 334-36. Francis Mason, "Mulamuli: Or the Buddhist Genesis of Eastern India from the Shan, through the Talaing and Burman," Journal of the American Oriental Society 4 (1854): 103-18. Chester Bennett, "Life of Gaudama: A Translation from the Burmese Book Entitled Ma-la-len-ga-ra wottoo," Journal of the American Oriental Society 3 (1853): 1-164.