Number 21 ______________________ May 1996


I. Thomas A. Tweed, ``Opening the Tomb of the Buddha:'' Buddhism and the Early Years of the American Oriental Society

II. Conferences

III. Grants, Fellowships, Programs, etc.

IV. Journals, Series, etc.

V. Positions Available

VI. Proceedings of the American Oriental Society, Philadelphia, 1996

VII. Newsletter Address



Thomas A. Tweed

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

It is recorded that King Asoka . . . devoted
his best efforts to finding the body of the
Buddha. At last, by the aid of a priest more
than a hundred years old, he found the secret
tomb. . . . More than two thousand years have
now passed, and we are opening the tomb again; the
lights still burn, the flowers are still fresh,
the perfume of that noble life yet remains immortal.
--Thomas Wentworth Higginson (1)

Americans began to pry open "the tomb of the Buddha" during the 1840s, and Thomas Wentworth Higginson and other members of the American Oriental Society (AOS) were there to detect "the perfume of that noble life." As genuine as Higginson's sympathy with the founder and the tradition might have been, many of us today might feel uncomfortable with his triumphant tone, Orientalist assumptions, and guiding image--the opening of a tomb. Still, Higginson was observing an intriguing instance of cultural contact and religious representation. Sakyamuni Buddha emerged clearly as an historical figure and interpreters identified Buddhism as a distinct tradition in a sustained public discourse that began around 1844. Public notice turned to Buddhism in the United States for a variety of reasons, some of them economic and political. Several cultural developments were especially important: Protestant missionaries sent more and more reports from Buddhist nations, New England Transcendentalists and other religious liberals searched the new translations and interpretations for spiritual guidance, and a transatlantic community of Buddhist studies scholars began to form. In this brief note I sketch a group portrait of the participants in this American discourse about Buddhism, setting aside the vexing questions about how their representations negotiated power, focusing on the role of the American Oriental Society, and considering the wide range of the Society's corporate and corresponding members--academic scholars, Protestant missionaries, and religious liberals. (2)

Although Westerners had commented on the tradition for centuries, linguistically-informed scholarship on Buddhism did not get underway until the nineteenth century. J.W. deJong has dated the rise of European Buddhist studies from the publication of Eugène Burnouf's and Christian Lassen's Essai dur le Pali (1826), the first Pali grammar in a European language. Since Pali is one of the sacred languages of Buddhism, this event was important, as was the establishing of the first chairs in Sanskrit and Chinese more than a decade earlier. Yet a case could be made for the view that European Buddhist studies only began when the first comprehensive scholarly treatment of Buddhism in a Western language appeared in 1844. That work, Burnouf's L'Introduction à l' histoire du buddhisme indien, provided a foundation for later study. And American intellectuals of all sorts reviewed, cited, and summarized the translations and interpretations by Burnouf, and other scholars who wrote during the first period of Buddhist studies (1844-77). (3)

The influence of European Buddhist scholarship, and Burnouf's work especially, is evident in the paper which Edward Elbridge Salisbury (1814-1901) read at the first annual meeting of the AOS on 28 May 1844. Salisbury had studied with Bopp and Lassen in Berlin and with Burnouf in France, and he went on to teach Arabic and Sanskrit at Yale from 1841 to 1854. Salisbury's paper for the AOS, "Memoir on the History of Buddhism"--along with Henry David Thoreau's editing of a translation from the Lotus Sutra for a Transcendentalist magazine in the same year--signaled the unofficial opening of the sustained American conversation about the nature and value of Buddhism. (4)

American scholars such as Salisbury played a limited role in the public discourse before the rise of the American university in the last decades of the nineteenth century, and to some extent even after that time as well. When Salisbury's paper appeared in the initial volume of the Journal of the American Oriental Society in 1849 it was the first scholarly article on Buddhism written by an American. Few similar efforts would follow in the next three decades. Until the 1880s, when American Buddhist studies began to develop more fully, the voices in the public conversation about Buddhism were European scholars, missionaries, or travelers or American religious leaders of various sorts--mainline Protestants, Unitarians, Transcendentalists, and Free Religionists. The more conservative Protestant participants often were foreign missionaries with some language skills, who were dedicated to saving the "heathen" abroad. The other most visible group in this discussion were the religious liberals and radicals, like Higginson, who had some sympathy for the founder and tradition but no knowledge of the original languages. (5)

The composition of this community of discourse was evident in the Society's founding, membership, proceedings, and journal. As most readers of this newsletter know, the AOS, one of the oldest learned societies in the United States, began in 1842 when "a few gentlemen interested in Oriental Literature" met at the Boston office of a local lawyer, John Pickering, to look into the possibility of forming an organization dedicated to promoting original research about Asia, including the Near East, Africa, South Asia, and the Far East. Few specialists in Asian languages and cultures worked in American colleges and universities before the twentieth century, and those who did wrote little about Buddhism for the Journal of the American Oriental Society and other scholarly and popular magazines. Besides the two pieces by Salisbury in the first volume, no other full-length articles appeared in the AOS's journal during the early period of Buddhist studies, and only a few scholars' letters, abstracts, and articles on Buddhism appeared in its pages after Buddhist studies had begun to mature in Europe and the United States (1877-1912). There were some important exceptions. Henry Clarke Warren (1854-99), the influential American Buddhologist who never held an academic post, contributed a sophisticated analysis to the journal in 1893, "The So-Called Chain of Causation of the Buddhists." Yale's Edward Washburn Hopkins (1857-1932) ably discussed "The Buddhist Rule against Eating Meat" in 1906. Overall, however, there was a relative lack of attention given to Buddhism in the Society's proceedings and journal. For example, in one annual meeting convened near the peak of Buddhist interest in Victorian America none of the forty-seven papers read focused on Buddhism. (6)

Some American scholars did manage to have influence in other ways. For example, Salisbury and Hopkins, both leading members of the AOS, helped to establish the "official" interpretation of Buddhism for many Americans by contributing to Noah Webster's Dictionary of the English Language. The first edition (1828), which appeared before American scholars had written about Buddhism, had included a remarkably unhelpful one-sentence entry on Buddhism: "The doctrines of the Buddhists of Asia." By the time that Salisbury penned his entry on the religion for the third edition, four years after he delivered in his initial paper to the AOS (1848), the definition had expanded to eighteen lines. Whitney was involved in the next edition (1859), and although its entries on Buddha and Buddhism are unsigned, it is likely that he wrote them or chose the scholar who did. To cite another example of influence, both Salisbury and Whitney played indirect roles in the development of American Buddhists studies during the 1880s and 1890s, through their teaching and their leadership in the AOS. Salisbury served as corresponding secretary of the AOS for eleven years (1846-57) and as president for ten (1863-66; 1873-80). Salisbury was Whitney's mentor at Yale. Whitney taught Charles Rockwell Lanman. Lanman, in turn, tutored Henry Clarke Warren, and Warren went on to make one of the first original contributions by an American to the international conversation in his Buddhism in Translations, a text that is still used in college classrooms. (7)

Here I cannot offer a full-blown explanation for the relative paucity of contributions from American scholars, but several factors seem relevant. The most important is that most American universities simply were not as established as the great institutions in Europe. Americans did not enjoy the same solid institutional base for the nurturing of a cohort of Buddhist scholars. Americans also were distracted by civil war during the 1860s, when Europeans were offering important interpretations and translations. Finally, personal factors had their impact. For reasons that biographers would be in a better position to judge, some of the American scholars who had the credentials and skills to make original contributions did not. Salisbury, Hopkins, and William Dwight Whitney (1827-94) are the most obvious examples. Whitney, perhaps the greatest Orientalist of his generation, focused on India and Hinduism. Although he did write about Buddhism at times, Hopkins never concentrated on the tradition either. As for Salisbury, for decades some American interpreters continued to read and cite his two early essays from the Journal of the American Oriental Society, but he never offered another major account of Buddhism, perhaps because he was too busy with his other duties as professor at Yale and leader in the AOS. (8)

Most of the scholarly voices in the conversation, then, were European. European Buddhist scholars reached American audiences through their books and articles. More directly still, they were corresponding or honorary members of the AOS, and they sent letters to be read aloud at the Society's annual meetings. The AOS celebrated European scholars such as Eugène Burnouf, Christian Lassen, and Brian Houghton Hodgson by electing them "honorary members." Among the prominent corresponding members--those who sent reports of various kinds--were F. Max Müller of Oxford, Albrecht Weber of Berlin, and Ernest Renan of Paris.

American religious liberals and conservatives spoke from the pulpit and the pew, and they were even more prominent than scholars in the AOS, and in the wider public conversation about Buddhism. Unitarians, Transcendentalists, Free Religionists, and mainline Protestants dominated the early membership lists. Not only did they help found the Society, they also contributed to the AOS proceedings and publications. Their role was especially significant from the 1840s to the 1870s. Influential religious liberals and radicals such as Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-82), James Freeman Clarke (1810-88), and William Rounseville Alger (1822-1905) were AOS members. Edward Everett (1794-1865), a Unitarian, served for a time as one its Vice Presidents, and Theodore Parker (1810-60), the well-known Transcendentalist minister, was of one its "directors." More conservative Protestants played important roles too during the early years of the Society. The idea for the organization probably originated with William Jenks (1778-1866), a Congregationalist minister in Boston; and Jenks's name was one of the three that appeared on the AOS's act of incorporation in 1843. Moses Stuart (1780-1852), the Congregationalist minister and professor of Bible at Andover Theological Seminary, acted as one of the original Vice Presidents. One of the Society's original directors was Rufus Anderson (1796-1880), secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) and the most influential American mission theorist and administrator of his day. (9)

Almost every important American Protestant missionary who served in a Buddhist nation was a corresponding member and mailed letters to the AOS's corresponding secretary. Those corresponding members who worked as missionaries included Congregationalist-turned-Baptist Adoniram Judson (1788-1850). Judson was an early leader of the movement that resulted in the ABCFM and the first American missionary to work in a predominantly Buddhist nation (Burma in 1814). Other corresponding members included Daniel Poor (1789-1855), a Congregationalist who arrived in Ceylon in 1816; Elijah Coleman Bridgman (1801-61), the first missionary in China; and John Taylor Jones (1802-51), the first American to evangelize in Siam (1833). Some of these missionaries who were affiliated with the AOS shaped the public discussion about Buddhism in important ways. Samuel Wells Williams (1812-84) did, through his popular book on China and his contributions to the Chinese Repository. Francis Mason and Chester Bennett, who both worked for the American Baptist Union in Burma, saw their translations and interpretations of Buddhist materials published in the pages of the AOS's journal during the 1850s. (10)

As the years passed, liberal and conservative religious leaders exerted much less influence on the proceedings of the AOS in general and the conversation about Buddhism in particular. In turn, scholars would come to have more and more prominence, especially after 1912. In the nineteenth century, however, a wide range of interpreters who were affiliated with the American Oriental Society joined in the efforts--as Higginson put it--to "open the Buddha's tomb."


35th International Congress of Asian and North African Studies

The 35th ICANAS will be held in Budapest, Hungary from 7-12 July 1997, organized by The Körösi Csoma Society and The Eötvös Loránd University.The general subject of the conference is "Oriental Studies in the 20th Century: The State of the Art (Great Personalities, discoveries and new developments in the last hundred years)". Papers devoted to the general subject and to any other topic may be read in sections or panels. The following Sections have been set:

I. Orient & Asia in Antiquity
1. Ancient Near East
2. Ancient Far East
II. Near and Middle East & North Africa
1. Judaic and Hebrew Studies
2. Islamic Studies
3. Arabic Studies
4. Iranian Studies (incl. Central Asian areas)
5. Urdu Studies
6. Ottoman and Turkish Studies
III. The Caucasus
1. Armenian Studies
2. Georgian Studies
IV. Central Asia & related areas
1. Turkic Studies and related areas
2. Mongolian Studies
3. Manchu-Tunguz Studies
4. Tibetan Studies
V. South Asia
1. Sanskrit Studies2. Indian and Hindi Studies
3. Tamil and Dravidian Studies
4. Buddhist Studies
VI. South East Asia
1. Thai
2. Burmese
3. Vietnamese
4. Khmer Studies
VII. East Asia
1. Japanese Studies
2. Chinese Studies
3. Korean Studies
VIII. Recent History and Present of Asia and North Africa

Panels may be presented by three or more participants. Ideas and projects for panels are welcome. The Körösi Csoma Society and the Eötvös Loránd University, being the organizers of the 35th ICANAS, are therefore inviting all institutions and scholars working in the field of Oriental studies to attend the Congress in Budapest and to contribute to its program. If you wish to attend the Congress, please contact (by 1 June 1996): Tamás Iványi, Köröso Csoma Társaság/ICANAS, Múzeum krt. 4/B, H-1088 Budapest, Hungary [fax: (361) 266 5699; e-mail:].

Mid-Atlantic Region / Association for Asian Studies (MAR/AAS)

The MAR/AAS will hold its 1996 Silver Anniversary Conference at Seton Hall College, South Orange, New Jersey, from 25-27 October 1996. For further information on the conference, papers and panel proposals contact: Dr. Vinay Bahl, South Asian Regional Studies, 820 Williams Hall, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6305 [tel.: (215) 386-0624].

Midwest Conference on Asian Affairs

The Midwest Conference on Asian Affairs will be held from 11-13 October 1996 in Champaign, Illinois, hosted by the Center for East Asian and Pacific Studies at the University of Illinois. For further information contact: The Center for Asian and Pacific Studies, 230 International Studies Bldg., 910 South 5th Street, MC-483, Champaign, IL 61820.

Xth World Sanskrit Conference

3-9 January 1997 Silver Jubilee Year of the International Association for Sanskrit Studies

We are pleased to announce that the Xth World Sanskrit Conference will be held in Bangalore, India, from 3 to 9 January 1997. This will be the third World Sanskrit Conference to be held in India (New Delhi, 1972 and Varanasi, 1981) and will commemorate the Silver Jubilee Year of the Intemational Association for Sanskrit Studies (IASS).

The Xth World Sanskrit Conference will be held in the Taralabalu Kendra, Bangalore, India. The Kendra has a modern research facility designed to promote Indian cultural education. Bangalore, the capital of Kamataka, is hailed as India's "garden city." The climate during the month of January will be particularly pleasant, making it an ideal time to visit.

We solicit papers on the following subject areas:
1. Sanskrit and Regional Languages
2. Vyakarana and Linguistics
3. Modern Sanskrit Literature
4. Sanskrit and Computers
5. Veda and Vedarigas
6. Epics and Puranas
7. Agamas and Tantras
8. Religion and Philosophy
9. Architecture, Fine Arts, and Aesthetics
10 Classical Sanskrit Literature
11. Scientific Sanskrit Literature
12. Dharma Sastra and Artha Sastra
13. Manuscripts and Historical Documents
14. Sanskrit and the Environment

We invite you to submit titles for papers. We request that you submit a draft of the paper (minimum 5 pages) by 15th Mav 1996 along with a bibliography and a 300-word abstract. Should your paper be accepted, we will print this abstract in the conference catalogue. The final paper should be submitted to the panel of chairpersons upon arrival at the conference.

1. Pre-registration fee (due on or before 31 July 1996):
a. For those whose emoluments are less than Rs. 15,000/month: Rs. 400
b. For those whose emoluments are more than Rs. 1 5,000/month: US $100
c. For students and scholars superannuated from service 50% concession on the above.
(Please note: only 75% of the registration Jee will be refunded in the event of cancellation)
2. Regular registration fee (after July 1996):
For thosein category 'a': Rs.450
For thosein category 'b': US$125

Xth World Sanskrit Conference
3rd Main, 2nd Block, RT Nagar
I BANGALORE - 560 032, [India]
Tel: +91-(0)80-3430017
Fax: +91-(0)80-3334541


Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

The Woodrow Wilson Center has announced the competition for its Fellowships in the Humanities and Social Sciences 1997-98. The application deadline is 1 October 1996. For further information and/or application materials contact: Fellowships Office, Woodrow Wilson Center, 1000 Jefferson Drive, S.W., SI MRC 022, Washington, DC 20560 [tel: (202) 357-2841; e-mail:; fax: (202) 357-4439].

National Endowment for the Humanities

The National Endowment for the Humanities has released its Overview of Endowment Programs 1996. For a copy or specific information on any program, grant, or fellowship, contact: Public Information Office, NEH, 1100 Pennsylvania Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20506 [[tel: (202) 606-8400; 800?NEH-1121; e-mail:].

Fulbright Awards

The 1997-98 competition for Fulbright awards is now open. The deadline for application is 1 August 1996. For further information and application materials contact: USIA Fulbright Senior Scholar Program, Council for International Exchange of Scholars, 3007 Tilden Street, NW, Suite 5M, Box GNEWS, Washington, DC 20008-3009. [tel.: (202) 686-7877; Web Page (on-line materials):; e-mail: (requests for mailing application materials only)].

Villa I Tatti Fellowships

Villa I Tatti: The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies offers up to fifteen fellowships for independent study on any aspect of the Italian Renaissance for the academic year 1997/98. The application deadline is 15 October 1996. For further information and/or application forms contact: Villa I Tatti Office, Harvard University, University Place, 124 Mt. Auburn Street, Cambridge, MA 02138-5762 [tel.: (617) 495-8042)].

The Society for South Asian Studies

Small Personal Research Grants. Applications are invited for a limited number of small personal research grants towards the cost of research and fieldwork in the Indian Sub-continent in the history, antiquities, archaeology, ethnography, languages, literatures, art and culture of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and other countries of South Asia. Grants are only available for work at post-doctoral level although applicants need not necessarily hold a doctoral qualification. Applicants must be normally resident in the United Kingdom and members of the Society for South Asian Studies. Applications for maintenance costs in the U.K. are not acceptable.

Travel Grants. Applications are also invited for a limited number of travel grants up to 500 each towards the costs of graduates and other suitably qualified persons travelling to the Indian sub-continent to take part in excavations and other organized fieldwork.

For further details and/or application forms contact: The Secretary, Society for South Asian Studies, Department of Oriental Antiquities, British Museum, London WC1, England.

Persian Heritage Foundation

Aid for Publication to Authors and Translators. The Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University, with support from the Persian Heritage Foundation, supports the publication of works in the following categories:

1. Scholarly works in English dealing with Iranian humanities when they qualify as original research or synthesis of a high standard;

2. Translations into English of works of merit from Persian or other Iranian languages which conform to the required standards or accuracy and readability;

3. Critical editions of texts in Iranian languages.

The deadlines for the submission of manuscripts are January 15, May 15, and September 15 of each year. Manuscripts approved by the Screening Committee will be published under special arrangement with the Foundation's publishers. For further details and guidelines contact: Committee on Awards, Center for Iranian Studies, 450 Riverside Drive, no. 4, New York, NY 10027. [tel.: (212) 280-4366; fax: (212) 749-9524].

American Research Institute in Turkey (ARIT)

Mellon Research Fellowships for Central and Eastern European Scholars in Turkey 1996-1997. ARIT is continuing last year's new fellowship program with the support of the Mellon Foundation. The fellowships are intended to bring scholars from eastern Europe (Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Poland) into the broader research community, specifically Turkey.

For further information contact ARIT, University of Pennsylvania Museum, 33rd and Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6324.

Duke Study in China Program

The application deadline for the Duke Study in China Program for this year was 1 March 1996. For information on future programs contact: Duke Study in China Program, Asian/Pacific Studies Institute, Duke University, 2111 Campus Drive, Box 90411, Durham, NC 27708-0411 [tel.: (919) 684-2604; fax (919) 681-6247].

Program in Comparative Religion and Culture

Through a grant from the Henry M. Luce Foundation, the Friends World Program will offer a year-long Program in Comparative Religion and Culture. This experientially-based program will allow students to encounter the religious traditions of Japan, India and Israel on a first-hand basis. For further information on this program contact: Friends World, Comparative Religion, Long Island University, Southamptom College, 239 Montauk Hwy, Southampton, NY 11968-9822.

The Mongolia Society Essay Competition

The Mongolia Society has announced an Essay Competition to stimulate and encourage excellence in writing and research in the field of Mongolian Studies. For further infomation on the essay competition, eligibility, rules, and awards, contact: The Mongolia Society, 322 Goodbody Hall, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 [tel. (812) 855-4078; fax: (812) 855-7500; e-mail:].

University of Pennsylvania

Mellon Postdoctoral Fellowships in the Humanities 1997-98

For younger scholars who, by October 15, 1996, will have received the Ph.D. but not yet held it for more than eight years nor been granted tenure. Research proposals are invited in all areas of humanistic studies except educational curriculum-building and performing arts. Preference is given to proposals that are interdisciplinary and to candidates who have not previously utilized the resources of this university and whose work would allow them to take advantage of the research strengths of the institution and to make contribution to its intellectual life. The award carries an annual stipend of $32,000. Completed applications and supporting material must be received by October 15, 1996. For further information and applications, write to:

Chair, Humanities Coordinating Committee c/o Tracey L. Cheek, Program Coordinator 16 College Hall University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104-6378

An Equal Opportunity, Affirmative Action Employer

Center for Judaic Studies

University of Pennsylvania

Post Doctoral Fellowships 1997-98

Application Deadline November 30, 1996

Text, Artifact and Image: Revealing Ancient Israelite Religion

The CJS program for 1997-98 will be devoted to integrating disciplines and methodologies in the study of Ancient Israelite Religion. The program will attempt to bring together a diverse community of scholars in biblical philology, archaeology and art history. Furthermore, since ancient Israel existed within a broader ancient Near Eastern cultural context, the participation of those who study Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Canaanite, Hurrian and Hittite cultures, with interest in religious traditions, is deemed essential.

The Center invites applications on projects examining the methodological principles of the various disciplines relating to the study of biblical and ancient Near Eastern religions. Issues to be explored may include: What basic assumptions are made in attempting to understand a culture's religion by studying its mythology, iconography, temple architecture or burial practices? What are the limitations of each approach, based upon the nature of the source materials for each discipline within each culture? What insights are gained by scholars, sharing the same disciplinary approach, when applied cross culturally? How can one determine commonality and uniqueness in the religious traditions of each of the ancient Near Eastern cultures?

Outstanding graduate students in the final stages of writing their dissertations may also apply. Stipend amounts are based on a Fellow's academic standing and financial need with a maximum of $30,000 for the academic year. A contribution may also be made towards travel expenses. Awards will be announced on January 30, 1997.

For application material and further information, write to:

Secretary, Fellowship Program
Center for Judaic Studies
420 Walnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19106
telephone: 215-238-1290
fax: 215-238-1540

The W.F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research, Jerusalem

1997-98 Fellowships

Application Deadline Dates:

Annual Professorship: 10/14/96
*National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowships (2): 10/14/96
Samuel H. Kress Fellowship:10/14/96
*Samuel H. Kress Joint Athens/Jerusalem Fellowship: 11/01/96
George A. Barton Fellowship: 10/14/96
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Fellowships (3): 05/15/97
*United States Information Agency Fellowships:
a. Pre-Doctoral/Junior (3):10/14/96
b. Summer Scholar in Residence (Senior): 10/14/96
c. Associate Fellowships (Junior and Senior): 04/15/97
*Islamic Studies Fellowship: 10/14/96
Endowment for Biblical Research Travel and Research Awards: 02/01/97

For information and application, after 1 June, 1996 write to: W.F. Albright, c/o American Schools of Oriental Research, 656 Beacon Street, 5th Floor, Boston, MA 02215-2010.

*Council of American Overseas Research Centers Multi-Country Research Fellowships: 01/01/97

For information and application, write to: The Council of American Overseas Research Centers (CAORC), Smithsonian Institution, IC 3123 MRC 705, Washington, D.C. 20560

*Social Science Research Council Fellowships:
a. Pre-doctoral Middle East Fellowships: 11/01/96
b. Post-doctoral Middle East Fellowships: 12/01/96

For information and application, write to: The Social Science Research Council, 605 3rd Ave., New York, New York 10158
*Awards subject to the availability of funds.

1. Annual Professorship (1): $23,000 award. The Annual Professorship is supported this year by a special grant from the Horace Goldsmith Foundation. The stipend is $10,000 plus room and half-board for appointee and spouse at the Institute (additional fellowship funding may be available via USIA for an appointee who is a U.S. citizen). Open to post-doctoral scholars in Near Eastern archaeology, geography, history, and Biblical studies. Appointment: 9-12 months. The professorship period should be continuous, without frequent trips outside the country. Application deadline: October 14, 1996.

2. *National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowships (2): $60,000 for two awards. The stipend for each award is $30,000. Open to scholars in the fields of archaeology, anthropology, geography, ancient history, philology, epigraphy, Biblical studies, Islamic studies, religion, art history, literature, philosophy or related disciplines. Open to scholars in Near Eastern studies holding a Ph.D. as of January 1, 1997, who are U.S. citizens or alien residents residing in the United States for the last three years. Research period: 12 months. Residence at the Institute is preferred. The research period should be continuous, without frequent trips outside the country. Application deadline: October

14, 1996.

3. Samuel H. Kress Fellowship (1): $12,000 award. The stipend is $5,500; remainder for room and half board at the Institute. Dissertation research fellowship for students specializing in architecture, art history and archaeology who are U.S. citizens. Research Period: 10 months. The research period should be continuous, without frequent trips outside the country. Application deadline: October 14, 1996.

4. *Samuel H. Kress Joint Athens-Jerusalem Fellowship (1): A joint fellowship for research at the American School of Classical Studies, Athens and at the W.F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research, Jerusalem. $12,000 award. The stipend is $5,500; remainder for room and board at the two institutions. Pre-doctoral research fellowship for students specializing in art history, architecture, archaeology or classical studies who are U.S. citizens. Research period: 10 months (5 months in Athens, 5 months in Jerusalem). The research period should be continuous, without frequent trips outside Greece and Israel. Application deadline: November 1, 1996.

5. George A. Barton Fellowship (1): $5,000 award. The stipend is $2,000; remainder for room and half-board at the Institute. Open to seminarians, pre-doctoral students and recent Ph.D. recipients specializing in Near Eastern archaeology, geography, history and biblical studies. Research period: 4-5 months. The research period should be continuous, without frequent trips outside the country. Application deadline: October 14, 1996.

6. Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Fellowships (3): $31,000 for three awards. The fellowships are open to Czech, Hungarian, Polish and Slovak scholars. Candidates should not be permanently resident outside the four countries concerned, and should have obtained a doctorate by the time the fellowship is awarded. Fellows are expected to reside at the Albright if room is available. Each fellowship is for three months, during one of the following periods: 1 September - 30 November 1997, 1 December 1997 - 28 February 1998, and 1 March - 31 May l998. The research period should be continuous, without frequent trips outside the country. Application deadline: 15 April 1997.

7. *United States Information Agency Fellowships:

a. Pre-Doctoral Fellowships (3): $39,000 for three awards. The stipend for each award is $6,700; remainder for room and half-board at the Institute. Open to pre-doctoral students and recent Ph.D. recipients in Near Eastern Studies who are U.S. citizens. Research period: 9 months. The research period should be continuous, without frequent trips outside the country. Application deadline: October 14, 1996.

b. Summer Scholar in Residence Fellowship (1): $3,500 award. The stipend is $1,500 remainder for up to three months room and half-board at the Institute. Open to senior scholars in Near Eastern Studies who are U.S. citizens. Not open to scholars engaged in co-terminus archaeological field work. Research period: 3 months between May 15 and August 15. The research period should be continuous, without trips outside of the country. Application deadline: October 14, 1996.

c. Associate Fellowships (13): Six senior and seven junior fellowship administrative fee awards. Application deadline: April 15, 1997.

8.*Islamic Studies Fellowship (1): $20,000 award. The stipend is $12,200; remainder for room and half-board at Institute. Candidates must have expertise in research and teaching in Islamic archaeology, art and architecture. During the period of the appointment, the Fellow will teach regular courses in the Master's Degree program at the Institute for Islamic Archaeology in Jerusalem, as well as conduct seminars at the Albright and other local academic institutions. Research period: 12 months. The research period should be continuous, without frequent trips outside the country. Application deadline: October 14, 1996.

9. Associate Fellowships: No stipend. Open to senior, post-doctoral, and pre-doctoral researchers. Administrative fee required (USIA subventions may be available). Application deadline: April 15, 1997.

10. Endowment for Biblical Research Travel and Research Awards: One (1) $1,500 research grant and nine (9) $1,000 travel grants for a one to three month period. Open to seminarians, undergraduates, graduate students or recent post-doctoral scholars and intended to improve participants understanding of the Bible. Application deadline: February 1, 1997.

11. *Council of American Overseas Research Centers (CAORC) Fellowship: for Advanced Multi-country Research. Twelve awards of up to $6,000 each, with an additional $3,000 for travel. Open to scholars pursuing research on broad questions of multi-country significance in the fields of humanities, social sciences, and related natural sciences in countries in the Near and Middle East and South Asia. Doctoral candidates and established scholars with US citizenship are eligible to apply as individuals or in teams. Preference will be given to candidates examining comparative and/or cross-regional questions requiring research in two or more countries. Application deadline: 1 January 1997.

12. *Social Science Research Council Fellowships: Pre-dissertation, dissertation, post-doctoral and advanced fellowships in varying amounts and lengths of time in support of research in the Near and Middle East, including North Africa and Turkey. Open to U.S. citizens or permanent legal residents. Research must be concerned with the period since the beginning of Islam. Research in the following countries cannot be supported: Afghanistan, Lebanon, Libya, Alberia, Iran and Iraq. Application deadline for pre-doctoral fellowships: 1 November 1996. Application deadline for post-doctoral fellowships: 1 December 1996. For further information and application, write to: The Social Science Research Council, 605 3rd Ave., New York, New York 10158. *Award subject to availability of Funds.

American Philosophical Society

The American Philosophical Society makes grants towards the cost of scholarly research in all areas of knowledge except those where support by government or corporate enterprise is more appropriate. Projects likely to culminate in scholarly publications are preferred; projects in the creative or performing arts, for the general readership, and educational materials for classroom use are not eligible.

Grants cover travel to the objects of research, purchase of photoreproductions of documents, and consumable professional supplies not available at the applicant's institution. The Society makes no grants for study, salary replacement, travel to conferences, consultation with other scholars, assistance with data entry, publication or translation, or the purchase of permanent equipment, telephone calls or stationery.

Eligibility: Applicants are expected to have held the doctorate for at least one year. Foreign nationals applying from abroad must state precisely what objects of research, ONLY available in the United States, need to be consulted.

Deadlines: January 1 for decision by mid-April
March 1 for decision by mid-June
July 1 for decision by mid-October
November 1 for decision by mid-February
Amount of award: $5000 maximum ($4000 for full professors).

Obtaining forms: Written requests for forms must indicate eligibility, specify the area of research, and state the proposed use of grant funds. Include a self-addressed mailing label. Telephone requests for forms cannot be honored. Our premises have not changed, but either of two addresses is valid:

Committee on Research, American Philosophical Society, 104 S. 5th Street OR 150 S. Independence Mall East, Philadelphia, PA 19106-3387

An APS web site is under construction, and should be available by the end of summer, 1996. "Grants" will appear on the initial page of the site, and there will be an e-mail utility button, for questions concerning the eligibility of a project.

National Endowment for the Humanities

The National Endowment for the Humanities announces the October 1, 1996, deadline for the Summer Stipends program.

NEH Summer Stipends support two months of full-time work on projects that will contribute to scholarly knowledge or to the general public's understanding of the humanities. Projects may address broad topics or consist of research and study in a single field.

In most cases, faculty members of colleges and universities in the United States must be nominated by their institutions for the Summer Stipends competition, and each of these institutions may nominate two applicants. Prospective applicants who will require nomination should acquaint themselves with their institution's nomination procedures well before the October 1 deadline. Individuals employed in nonteaching capacities in colleges and universities and individuals not affiliated with colleges and universities do not require nomination and may apply directly to the program.

Application Deadline: October 1, 1996

Tenure: Tenure must cover two full and uninterrupted months and will normally be held between May 1, 1997, and September 30, 1997.

Stipend: $4,000

Inquiries: Summer Stipends Program, Room 318, National Endowment for the Humanities, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20506; 202/606-8551;

Application guidelines for this program are also available online at


Corpus Fontium Manichaeorum (CFM)

The study of the history of Manichaeism has made enormous progress in the present century thanks to a series of remarkable archaeological finds of genuine Manichaean texts and of religious buildings, paintings and inscriptions from Central Asia, Egypt, North Africa and South China. Many of the texts recovered from Central Asia and Egypt are in a fragmentary condition and many primary texts and fragments are still unpublished (esp. many Turfan fragments) or have been published only in facsimile form (especially the still unedited codices of the medinet Madi corpus). However, systematic work has been undertaken on these texts in several major institutions of learning, especially in Germany, Great Britain, France, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Belgium, Russia, Japan, and the PRC. The new Corpus Fontium Manichaeorum will make all this material, hitherto diversely published, available in a series which can be easily consulted by historians of religion, theologians, ancient and medieval historians, orientalists as well as by specialists in the languages in which the documents were composed. The structure of the CFM will be as follows: I. Series Syriaca, II. Series Arabica, III. Series Coptica, IV. Series Dachlaica, V. Series (Medio-)Iranica VI. Series Uigurica, VII. Series Sinica, VIII. Series Latina, IX. Series Graeca. The volumes will contain: original text, apparatus criticus, translation and notes in English, French, or German; photographs are either included or in (a) separate volume(s). Some 20 volumes are forecast to appear between (1995/6-2000), published by Brepols Publishers (Belgium).

Those who would like to participate in this initiative study are kindly invited to write to the editors of the CFM: Alois van Tongerloo, Editor-in-Chief of the CFM, KULeuven, Department of Oriental Studies, Blijde-Inkomststraat, 21, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.


International Institute, University of Michigan

Position in Sikh Studies

The University of Michigan seeks candidates for a tenure-track or tenure endowed position in Sikh Studies, beginning in September 1997. This endowed chair is intended to promote the study of Sikh culture, history, literature, philosophy, and religion, which expands the University's teaching and research activities in South Asian civilizations. The appointment may be located among departments that include Asian Languages and Cultures, Anthropology, Comparative Literature, Film and Video, History, Philosophy, and Sociology. Qualifications include a Ph.D. in an appropriate social science or humanities discipline, native or near-native competence in Panjabi, the ability to situate the study of Sikh topics within the broader study of South Asia, and the capacity to link Sikh studies with the theory, methodologies, and knowledge of a social science or humanities discipline. Teaching duties, to be determined by the successful applicant's academic background, will include courses which integrate Sikh studies with a liberal arts discipline and the study of South Asia, and may include teaching of Panjabi. Materials received by May 1, 1996 will receive first consideration, but applications will be reviewed until the position is filled.

Send application materials, including three letters of recommendation, to Sikh Studies Search Committee, International Institute, 340 Lorch Hall, 611 Tappan St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1220. The University of Michigan is an affirmative action, equal opportunity employer.

United States Pan Asian American Chamber of Commerce (USPAACC) Job Bank

The USPAACC Job Bank has career openings in Asia and throughout the United States as well as various scholarship opportunities. For further information contact USPAACC, 1329 18th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036 [tel.: (202) 296-5221; fax: (202) 296-5225].

American Research Center in Egypt

The American Research Center in Egypt (ARCE) seeks a Technical Project Director for its United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded conservation project in Egypt. ARCE is administering $15 million in Egyptian currency for the conservation of Egyptian Antiquities in collaboration with the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA). The scope of the conservation work is extensive, with forty projects in various stages of implementation, covering Pharaonic, Graeco-Roman, Islamic, Coptic and Jewish monuments in all areas of the country.

The Egyptian Antiquities Project (EAP) Technical Director will be responsible for providing in-house scientific and technical expertise. Will have primary responsibility for technical project monitoring and review. Will carry out periodic on-site inspections to produce internal progress reports, review sub-grantee progress reports, and assist the Project Director to prepare quarterly progress reports to the funding agency for each sub-project and evaluate completion of work phases. Will coordinate additional technical, monitoring and evaluation consultants. In addition, will provide technical support for the sub-grant technical review process including evaluation of project feasibility, etc., and liaison on technical matters, as required, with the Supreme Council of Antiquities and other Egyptian authorities. Close coordination between the EA Project professional team: Director, Grant Administrator, and Technical Director will be required. The EAP Technical Director will report to EA Project Director.

Qualifications: Higher degree(s) in historic preservation, architecture, or conservation. Minimum 10 years experience in all aspects of historic preservation projects, including documentation and project management. Experience in archaeology, engineering, geology, CAD, professional architectural registration highly desirable. Previous work experience in Near East, especially Egypt, and fluency in Arabic valuable. Must be willing to handle numerous complex tasks simultaneously.

Duration: Two year contract with possibility of extension.

Salary/ Benefits: According to experience, previous earnings, a salary range established for the position, and funding agency requirements. Mobilization and demobilization airfare, housing allowance, children's educational allowance, medical insurance, pension and one round trip airfare to London, UK during the period all provided according to policies.

Application requirements: Current resume, a statement of relevant experience, biographical data information (form to be supplied upon request from either New York or Cairo address) which must include salary history, and the names, addresses and telephone numbers of three professional references.

Contact: Candidates should forward application requirements to Robert K. Vincent, Jr., Egyptian Antiquities Project Director, American Research Center in Egypt by mail or facsimile transmission: (20-2) 354-8622; (20-2) 355-3052 to be received no later than August 15, 1996. Interviews will he held at ARCE in New York in late August. Expected date of employment is October 1, 1996 in Cairo. No telephone applications please.

New York Address:
30 E. 20th Street, Suite 401
New York, NY 10003
Phone: 1-212-529-6661
Fax: 1-212-529-6856

Cairo Address:
2 Midan Kasr el-Dubara,
Garden City;Cairo, Egypt
Phone 20-2-354-8239
Fax: 20-2-355-3052

Yale University

Assistant Professor of Egyptology, non-tenure. Ph.D. required, publications, teaching experience. To teach courses in Egyptian language and literature at brginning and advanced levels, history, religion, and archaeology. Please send application with vita and bibliography to: Professor Benjamin R. Foster, Chair, Egyptology Search Committee, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, Yale University, P.O.Box 208236, New Haven, CT 06520-8236. Deadline November 15, 1996.
Yale University is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.

The University of Chicago

Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
The Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations at the University of Chicago invites applications to a tenured/tenure-track, open-rank position in Arabic Literature. The appointment will begin on July 1, 1997. Applicants must be specialized in classical Arabic literature, including classical poetry, and must have a teaching knowledge of modern Arabic literature. They must have a solid background in classical Arabic philology and syntax, and familiarity with literary theory. In addition, they should be thoroughly fluent in Arabic. The Ph. D. degree and a credible record of publications are required.

Applications should include a curriculum vitae and the names, addresses and telephone/fax numbers of at least three scholars who can provide academic references. Applications should be sent to: Chair, Arabic Search Committee, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, The University of Chicago, 1155 East 58th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637. The deadline for receipt of applications is October 31, 1996.

The University of Chicago is an Equal Opportunity, Affirmative Action employer. Members of underrepresented groups are strongly encouraged to apply.


All items for the Newsletter of the American Oriental Society should be sent to:

Ruth I. Meserve, Editor

Newsletter of the American Oriental Society

Department of Central Eurasian Studies

Goodbody Hall 157

Indiana University

Bloomington, IN 47405

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