Glossary of Medical Terminology  

Abnormal (異常): Not normal. May be cancerous or premalignant.

Areola (乳暈): The area of dark-colored skin on the breast that surrounds the nipple.

Asymptomatic (沒有症狀): Having no signs or symptoms of disease.

Axilla (腋窩): The underarm or armpit

Axillary (腋窩的): Pertaining to the armpit area, including the lymph nodes that are located there.

Axillary dissection (下淋巴结切除): Surgery to remove lymph nodes found in the armpit region. Also called axillary lymph node dissection.

Axillary lymph nodes (下淋巴结): Lymph nodes found in the armpit that drain the lymph channels from the breast.

Benign (良性): Not cancerous; does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body.

Benign tumor (良性腫瘤): A noncancerous growth that does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body.

Biopsy (活體組織檢查): The removal of cells or tissues for examination under a microscope. When only a sample of tissue is removed, the procedure is called an incisional biopsy or core biopsy. When an entire tumor or lesion is removed, the procedure is called an excisional biopsy. When a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle, the procedure is called a needle biopsy or fine-needle aspiration.

Breast cancer (乳腺癌): Malignant growth of breast cells. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women though with an increase in female tobacco smokers one may expect lung cancer to become as prevalent, if not more.

Breast cancer in situ (乳腺原位癌): Abnormal cells that are confined to the ducts or lobules in the breast. There are two forms, called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS).

Estrogens (雌激素): A family of hormones that promote the development and maintenance of female sex characteristics.

Genetic (遺傳的): Inherited; having to do with information that is passed from parents to offspring through genes in sperm and egg cells.

Mammogram (乳腺X光片):  The record produced by mammography.

Prognosis (疾病癒後): A forecast of the probable course and/or outcome of a disease.

Radiation therapy (放射治療): The use of high-energy radiation from x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, and other sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation may come from a machine outside the body (external-beam radiation therapy), or it may come from radioactive material placed in the body near cancer cells (internal radiation therapy, implant radiation, or brachytherapy). Systemic radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance, such as a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, that circulates throughout the body. Also called radiotherapy.

Radical mastectomy (根治性乳腺切除術): Surgery for breast cancer in which the breast, chest muscles, and all of the lymph nodes under the arm are removed. For many years, this was the operation most used, but it is used now only when the tumor has spread to the chest muscles. Also called the Halsted radical mastectomy.

Risk (危险): The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.

Screening (筛查): Examination of a group of usually asymptomatic individuals to detect those with a high probability of having a given disease, typically by means of an inexpensive diagnostic test. 

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