Not normal. May be cancerous or premalignant.
The area of dark-colored skin on the breast that surrounds the nipple.
Having no signs
or symptoms of disease.
The underarm or armpit
Pertaining to the armpit area, including the
lymph nodes that are located there.
Axillary dissection (腋下淋巴结切除): Surgery to remove lymph nodes
found in the armpit region. Also called axillary lymph node dissection.
lymph nodes (腋下淋巴结):
Lymph nodes found in the armpit that drain the lymph channels from the breast.
Not cancerous; does not invade nearby tissue
or spread to other parts of the body.
Benign tumor (良性腫瘤): A noncancerous growth that does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body.
The removal of cells or tissues for examination under a microscope. When only a
sample of tissue is removed, the procedure is called an incisional biopsy or
core biopsy. When an entire tumor or lesion is removed, the procedure is called
an excisional biopsy. When a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle,
the procedure is called a needle biopsy or fine-needle aspiration.
Malignant growth of breast cells. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in
women though with an increase in female tobacco smokers one may expect lung
cancer to become as prevalent, if not more.
Breast cancer in situ (乳腺原位癌): Abnormal cells that are
confined to the ducts or lobules in the breast. There are two forms, called
ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS).
A family of hormones that promote the development and maintenance of female sex
Genetic (遺傳的): Inherited; having to do with information that is passed from
parents to offspring through genes in sperm and egg cells.
The record produced by mammography.
of the probable course and/or outcome of a disease.
Radiation therapy (放射治療):
The use of high-energy radiation from x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, and other
sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation may come from a
machine outside the body (external-beam radiation therapy), or it may come from
radioactive material placed in the body near cancer cells (internal radiation
therapy, implant radiation, or brachytherapy). Systemic radiation therapy uses a
radioactive substance, such as a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, that
circulates throughout the body. Also called radiotherapy.
Radical mastectomy (根治性乳腺切除術): Surgery for breast cancer in which the breast, chest muscles, and all
of the lymph nodes under the arm are removed. For many years, this was the
operation most used, but it is used now only when the tumor has spread to the
chest muscles. Also called the Halsted radical mastectomy.
that an event will
occur. It encompasses a variety of measures
of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
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