This paper concerns in-vehicle warnings for accident-provocative situations (accidents ahead, new traffic signals, police cars on emergency runs, etc.). Candidate warnings were developed for 30 hazards based on drawings from 10 drivers. Subsequently, 75 drivers ranked these warnings. Preferred warnings were not always in the standard U.S. highway sign set. In general, text warnings were slightly preferred over symbolic warnings.
In a third experiment, 20 drivers were shown 10 hazard location cue designs: 2 text, 4 arrow, 3 overview, and 1 inside-out. Of the location cues, text ("on right," "behind," etc.) was best understood.
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