Christopher Nowakowski, Yoshihiko Utsui, and Paul Green
Sixteen licensed drivers, 8 younger (20 to 28 years old, mean of 25) and 8 older (55 to 65 years old, mean of 60), entered destinations by (1) entering addresses with the keyboard, (2) selecting them from a list using the keyboard, and (3) selecting them from a list using a remote control. The tasks were performed in a driving simulator both statically and under various driving workloads.
The mean total task times for list selection and address entry, respectively, was 18 and 71 seconds for younger drivers and 32 and 145 seconds for older drivers. Age were the largest factor, with older drivers sometimes taking up to twice as long to complete tasks. Although there was a significant increase (127%) in total task time between static (parked) and dynamic (driving) task times, varying the curve radius (to vary the demand of driving) did not significantly affect destination entry task times. There was, however, a significant driving performance decrement between baseline driving and driving while performing the various navigation tasks for all age groups.
Finally, this study suggested only minor changes to SAE J2365, the associated calculation procedure for SAE J2364. Overall, the measured keystroke times compared well to the estimates in the SAE J2365 calculation procedure, but there was evidence that the age multiplier did not remain constant for repeated keystroke or between input devices. Specifically, the age multiplier was much greater for keyboard use (close to 2) than for remote control use (closer to 1.5).
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