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Page updated June 30, 2014

 Driver Interface Group Publications

Below is a listing of publications by members of the UMTRI Human Factors Driver Interface Group sorted by year. Abstracts and full reports in .pdf format (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) are provided where available by clicking on the report title.

Although we are making efforts to provide electronic copies of our work, for information on ordering any publication listed on this page, please contact Bob Sweet (bsweet@umich.edu) at the UMTRI Research Information and Publications Center.


In Preparation/To Appear

Green, P. (2011, to appear) Driver Eye Fixations (Chapter) in Smiley, A (ed.) Human Factors in Traffic Safety (3rd ed.), Tucson, AZ: Lawyers and Judges Publishing.


2014

Green, P. (2014) Doing Better Driving Research: Suggestions from a Reviewer, European Conference on Human Centred Design for Intelligent Transport Systems, Vienna, Austria.


2013

Green, P. (2013) Standard Definitions for Driving Measures and Statistics: Overview and Status of Recommended Practice J2944, Proceedings of Automotive UI 2013, 5th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, October 27-30, 2013.

Green, P. (2013). Eleven Tips to Find Course Material When Time is Limited, Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Cai, H., Green, P.A., and Kim, J-J. (2013). Estimating the Legibility of a Single Letter E Viewed at Different Display Angles. Applied Ergonomics, 44(4), 575-587.

Klinich, K.D., Manary, M.A., Flannagan, C.A., Ebert, S.M., Malik, L.A., Green, P.A., and Reed, M.P. (2013, in press). Effect of Child Restrain Features on Installation Errors. Applied Ergonomics, (),.

Akamatsu, M., Green, P.A. and Bengler, K. (2013). Advances of Human Factors Research for Future Vehicular Technology. International Journal of Vehicular Technology, Vol. 2013, Article ID 749089, 2 pages.

Akamatsu, M., Green, P.A. and Bengler, K. (2013). Automotive Technology and Human Factors Research: Past, Present, and Future. International Journal of Vehicular Technology,Vol. 2013, Article ID 526180, 27 pages.

Green, P.A. and Park, J-S. (2013). Evaluation of a Navigation Radio Using the Think-Aloud Method. International Journal of Vehicular Technology,Vol. 2013, Article ID 705086, 12 pages.

Lo, V. E-W. and Green, P.A. (2013). Development and Evaluation of Automotive Speech Interfaces: Useful Information from the Human Factors and the Related Literature. International Journal of Vehicular Technology, Vol. 2013, Article ID 924170, 9 pages.

Kang, T-P., Lin, B.T-W., Green, P., Pettinato, S., and Best, A. (2013). Usability of a Hyundai-Kia Generation 4 Propotype Navigation Radio: Evidance from an Occlusion Experiment and SAE J2365 and Pettitt's Method Calculations (Technical Report UMTRI- 2013-11), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Lin, B.T-W. and Green, P. (2013). Measurements of Driver Assistance Warning Signal Characteristics in 2013 Cars (Technical Report UMTRI-2013-03), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Jeong, H. and Green, P. (2013). SAE and ISO Standards for Warnings and Other Driver Interfaces Elements: A Summary (Technical Report UMTRI-2013-XX), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.


2012

Green, P. (2012) Using Standards to Improve the Replicability and Applicability of Driver Interface Research, Proceedings of Automotive UI 2012, 4th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Portsmouth, NH, October, 2012.

Lin, B.T-W., Green, P., Kang, T-P., Pettinato, S., and Best, A. (2012). Usability of a Hyundai-Kia Generation 4 Propotype Navigation Radio: Evidance from a Think-Aloud Experiment (Technical Report UMTRI-2012-37), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Jeong, H. and Green, P. (2012). Forward Collision Warning Modality and Content: A Summary of Human Factors Experiments (Technical Report UMTRI-2012-35), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. (2012). Motor Vehicle Driver Interface (Chapter 58). in Savendy, G. (ed.), Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics (4th. ed.), New York,NY: Wiley

Lin, B.T-W., Green, P., Kang, T-P., Mize, A., Best, A., and Su, K. (2012). Touch Screen Menu Selection Time, SAE J2365 Predictions of Them, and Driver Preferences for Selection Methods (Technical Report UMTRI-2012-9), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P., Kang, T-P., Lin, B.T-W., Lo, E-W., Best, A., and Mize, A. (2012). Driver Reactions to an Automatic Crash Avoidance Braking System (Technical Report UMTRI -2012-11), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Lin, B.T-W., Green, P., Kang, T-P., and Lo, E-W. (2012). Development and Evaluation of New Anchors for Ratings of Driving Workload (Technical Report UMTRI-2012-14), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. (2012) Motor Vehicle Driver Interfaces (Chapter 32) in Jacko (ed.), Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.


2011

Cai, H., Kim, J-J., and Green, P.A. (2011). Computational Assessment of Text Legibility in Lecture Halls. Indoor and Building Environments, 20(3), 321-332.

Lo, V. E-W., Green, P.A., and Franzblau, A. (2011). Where Do People Drive? Navigation System Use by Typical Drivers and Auto Experts. Journal of Navigation, 64(2), 357-373.

Green, P. (2011). Human Factors and Patient Safety: A Course Outline (Technical Report UMTRI-2011-50), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P., Lin, B., Kang, T-P., and Best, A. (2011). Manual and Speech Entry of Text Messages while Driving (Technical Report UMTRI-2011-47), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Blakeslee, D. and Green, P. (2011). Driver Comments on Their Experience with Crash Braking Systems (Technical Report UMTRI-2011-35), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P., Lin, B.T-W., Schweitzer, J., Ho, H., and Stone, K. (2011). Evaluation of a Method to Estimate Driving Workload in Real Time: Watching Clips Versus Simulated Driving (Technical Report UMTRI-2011-29), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P., Kang, T-P., Alter, M., Best, A., and Lin, B. (2011). Driver Performance with and Preferences for Lane Depature Warning System Feedback: Steering Wheel Torque vs. Vibration (Technical Report UMTRI-2011-11), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P., Diebol, J.K., Park, J.S., and Ho, H. (2011). Visual Occlusion and the Workload of the Primary Task Driving: A Review of the Literature (Technical Report UMTRI-2010-11), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.


2010

Green, P. (2010) Driver Distraction/Overload Research and Engineering: Problems and Solutions (SAE paper 2010-01-2331), Convergence Conference Proceedings, Warrendal, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

Green, P. (2010). Human Factors Engineering: A Short Course for Palo Verde Nuclear Generation Station, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Park, J-S., Green, P., and Alter, M. (2010). Usability Assessment of the Mobis Gen 3 Navigation Radio (technical Report UMTRI-2010-23), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P., Diebol, J.K., Park, J.S., and Ho, H. (2010). Visual Occlusion and the Workload of the Primary Task Driving: A Review of the Literature (technical Report UMTRI-2010-11), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.


2009

Cai, H. & Green, P. (2009). Legibility Index to Examine Common Viewing
Situations: A New Definition Using Solid Angle
. LEUKOS, April, 5(4), 279-295.

Lin, T-W, Hwang, S-L., and Green, P.A. (2009). Effects of Time-Gap
Settings of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) on Driving Performance and
Subjective Acceptance in a Bus Driving Simulator
, Safety Science, May,
47(5), 620-625.

Green, P. (2009). The Next Year in HFES. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Bulletin, Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Savino, M. (2009). Standardized Names and Definitions for Driving Performance Measures (Unpublished Master Thesis). Medford, MA: Tufts Univsrsity

Green, P. (2009). Assessing Human Factors/Ergonomics: How Well Are We Doing as a Profession? (Presidential Address). 53rd HFES Annual Meeting. San Antonio, TX

Schweitzer, J. and Green, P. (2009). Instructions for Using the UMTRI Expressway Scenario Creation and Control Software (technical Report UMTRI-2009-19), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Schweitzer, J. and Green, P. (2009). Instructions for Using the UMTRI Urban Scenario Creation and Control Software (technical Report UMTRI-2009-20), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Schweitzer, J., Green, P., and Worrel, B. (2009). Baseline Driving Data for Scenario Created Usingthe the UMTRI Driving Scenario Development Software (technical Report UMTRI-2009-16), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Worrel, B. and Green, P. (2009). Scenario Selection and Planning of Scenarios for the GM DriveSafety Driving Simulator (technical Report UMTRI-2009-17), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.


2008

Green, P., Schweitzer, J., Alter, M., and Demeniuk, C. (2008). Traffic Signal Violation Warnings: Driver Interface Development and an Initial Driving Simulator Evaluation (technical Report UMTRI-2008-11), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P., Demeniuk, C., and Jih, S. (2008). In-Vehicle Traffic Signal Violation Warnings: A Review of the Humand Factors Literature (technical Report UMTRI-2008-10), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. (2008). Driver Interface Safety and Usability Standards: An Overview, chapter 24 in Regan, M.A., Lee, J.D., and Young, K.L., Driver Distraction: Theory, Effects, and Mitigation, CRC Press.

Green, P. (2008). Provocations: Summarizing Human Factors Literature With Haikus, Limericks, and Other Poetic Forms, Ergonomics in Design, 16(4), 23-24.

Sayer, J., Cullinane, B., Zylstra, B., Green, P., and Devonshire, J. (2008). Lateral Drift and Curve Speed Warnings: A Driving Simulator Evaluation of Auditory and Haptic Implementations (Technical Report UMTRI-2003-41). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P.A., Sullivan, J.M., Tsimhoni, O., Oberhotzer, J., Buonorasa, M.L., Devonshire, J., Schweitzer, J., Baragar, E., and Sayer, J.R. (2008). Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS): Human Factors and Driver-Vehicle Interface Summary Report (technical Report UMTRI-2007-43), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/staticfiles/DOT/NHTSA/NRD/Multimedia/PDFs/ Crash%20Avoidance/2008/810905-Lo.pdf).

Green, P. (2008). Developing Complex Crash Warning Simulations for Human Factors Evaluations, Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Green, P. (2008). Driver Interface/HMI Standards to Minimize Driver Distraction/Overload (SAE paper 2008-21-2002), Convergence 2008 Conference Proceedings, Detroit, Michigan.

[Software] Cai, H. (2008). "Computer Program for Ideal Viewing Areas of Multiple Visual Displays" Introduction, Code, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Green, P. and Wickens, C. (eds.) (2008-). Human Factors Engineering Short Course Notes, Engineering Summer Conference, Chrysler Center for Continuing Engineering Education, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan (issued annually, 1-2 volumes, 1300 pages).


2007

Green, P., Alter, M., Schweitzer, J., Walls, S.M., and Lin, T-W. (2007). Camera Systems vs. Mirrors to Aid Driving: Driving Data, Maneuver Gaps, Glances, Situation Awareness Responses, and Subjective Ratings from an On-Road Experiment (technical Report UMTRI-2007-49), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Alter, M., Lo, E-W., and Green, P. (2007). Passenger Car Rer Vison Camera System: Some Related Human Factors Literature (technical Report UMTRI-2007-8), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. (2007). Why Driving Performance Measures Are Sometimes Not Accurate (and Methods to Check Accuracy), 4th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, Iowa City, Iowa: University of Iowa.

Cai, H. & Green, P. (2007). New definition of legibility index to examine off-axis viewing of text and graphics, IESNA Annual Conference: Light Matters 2007: Integrating Light Into Our Environments. General Lighting Topics. January 28-30, 2007. Phoenix, AZ.

Green, P. (2007). Introduction to Human Factors Engineering: Seminar for the NHTSA Staff, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.

Yee, S., Nguyen, L., Green, P.A., Oberholtzer, J. and Miller, B. (2007). Visual, Auditory, Cognitive, and Psychomotor Demands of Real In-Vehicle Tasks (Technical Report UMTRI-2006-20), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (May)

Oberholtzer, J., Yee, S., Green, P.A., Eoh, H., Nguyen, L., and Schweitzer, J. (2007). Frequency of Distracting Tasks People Do While Driving: An Analysis of the ACAS FOT Data (Technical Report UMTRI-2006-17), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (June)

Green, P.E., Wada, T., Oberholtzer, J., Green, P.A., Schweitzer, J. and Eoh, H. (2007). How Do Distracted and Normal Driving Differ: An Analysis of the ACAS FOT Data (Technical Report UMTRI-2006-35, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (May)

Schweitzer, J. and Green, P.A. (2007). Task Acceptability and Workload of Driving Urban Roads, Highways, and Expressway: Ratings from Video Clips (Technical Report UMTRI-2006-6), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (May)


2006

Baron, A. and Green, P. (2006). Safety and Usability of Speech Interfaces for In-Vehicle Tasks while Driving: A Brief Literature Review (Technical Report UMTRI 2006-5), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. Part A Part B.

Green, P. (2002, 2nd edition 2007). Motor Vehicle Driver Interfaces (chapter 45) in Jacko, J.A. and Sears, A. (eds.), Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Green, P. (2001, 2nd edition 2007). Driver Eye Fixations (chapter 4, pp 77-110), in Dewar, R.E. and Olson, P.L. (eds.), Human Factors in Traffic Safety, Tucson, AZ: Lawyers and Judges Publishing.

Green, P. (2006). Driver Status and Implications for Crash Safety (SAE paper 2006-21-0028), Convergence 2006 Conference Proceedings, Detroit, Michigan.

Green, P. (2006). Methods for Assessing the Safety and Usability of In-Vehicle Systems: Lessons from UMTRI Driver Interface Research (invited plenary address), Proceedings of the International Workshop on Safety and Comfort in Vehicles, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, November 6-7, 2006.

Green, P. (2006). Parking Crashes and Parking Assistance System Design: Evidence for Crash Data Bases, The Literature, and Insurance Agent Interviews, (SAE paper 2006-06AE-269), Warrendale, PA

Pew, R.W. and Green, P. (2006). Almost 50 Years of the University of Michigan Human Factors Engineering Summer Conference, Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Santa Monica, CA.

Eoh, H., Green, P.A., Schweitzer, J., and Hegedus, E. (2006). Driving Performance Analysis of the ACAS FOT Data and Recommendations for a Driving Workload Manager (Technical Report UMTRI-2006-18), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (Dec)

Yee, S., Green, P.A., Nguyen, L., Schweitzer, J., and Oberholtzer, J. (2006). Second-Generation UMTRI Scheme for Classifying Driver Tasks in Distraction Studies and Application to the ACAS FOT Video Clips (Technical Report UMTRI-2006-16), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (August)


2005

Green, P. (2005). How Driving Simulator Data Quality Can Be Improved, Driving Simulation Conference North America 2005, Orlando, Florida.

Cai, H. and Green, P. (2005). Character Heights for Vehicle Displays as Predicted by 22 Equations, 2005 Vehicle Display Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Dearborn, Michigan.

Rubin, R. and Green, P. (2005). Design Guidelines for Video-Based Parking Assistance Systems (Technical Report UMTRI 2005-9). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Gadgil, S. and Green, P. (2005). How Much Clearance Drivers Want While Parking: Data to Guide the Design of Parking Assistance Systems, 49th Annual Meeting, Santa Monica, CA; Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (CD-ROM).


2004

Walls, S.M., Green, P., Gadgil, S., Amann, J., and Cullinane, B. (2004). Alternative Images for Parallel Parking: A Usability Test of a Multi-Camera Assistance System (Technical Report UMTRI 2004-31). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Cullinane, B. and Green, P. (2004). Visual Demand of Curves and Fog-Limited Sight Distance and Its Relationship to Brake Response Time (Technical Report UMTRI-2003-34). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. Save-It Reports

Walls, S.M., Amann, J., Cullinane, B., Green, P., Gadgil, S., and Rubin, R. (2004). Alternative Images for Perpendicular Parking: A Usability Test of a Multi-Camera Assistance System (Technical Report 2004-17). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Cullinane, B., Smith, D., and Green, P. (2004). Where, When, and How Well People Park: A Phone Survey and Field Measurements (Technical Report 2004-18). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Tsimhoni, O. and Green, P. (2004). Visual Demand of Driving Curves Determined by Visual Occlusion. In A.G. Gale et al. (Eds.), Vision in Vehicles 8. Derby, UK: Vision in Vehicles Press.

Green, P., Gadgil, S., Walls, S.M., Amann, J., and Cullinane, B.(2004). Desired Clearance Around a Vehicle while Parking and for Low Speed Maneuvers (Technical Report 2004-30). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Smith, D., Green, P., and Jacob, R.(2004). Parking and Low-Speed Crashes: Crash Database, Literature, and Insurance Agent Perspectives (Technical Report UMTRI 2004-9). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Backs, R.W., Leneman, J.K., Wetzel, J.M., and Green, P. (2004). Cardiac Measures of Driver Workload during Simulated Driving with and without Visual Occlusion, Human Factors, 45(4), 525-538.

Green, P. and Kishi, N. (2004). Assessing the Safety of Infotainment Systems Use While Driving: Practical Lessons from InfoMan, International Workshop on Progress and Future Direction of Adaptive Driver Assistance Research, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation (). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. www.volpe.dot.gov/opsad/saveit/workshop.html).

Tsimhoni, O., Smith, D., Green, P., (2004). Address Entry while Driving: Speech Recognition versus a Touch-screen Keyboard, Human Factors, 46(6), 600-610.

Green, P. (2004). Driver Distraction, Telematics Design, and Workload Managers: Safety Issues and Solutions. (SAE paper 2004-21-0022), Proceedings of the 2004 International Congress on Transportation Electronics (Convergence 2004, SAE publication P-387), 165-180. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

Backs, R.W., Leneman, J.K., Wetzel, J.M., and Green, P. (2004). Cardiac Measures of Driver Workload during Simulated Driving with and without Visual Occlusion, Human Factors, 45(4), 525-538.

Campbell, J.L., Hoffmeister, D.H., Kiefer, R.J., Selke, D.J., Green, P., and Richman, J.B. (2004). Comprehension Testing of Active Safety Symbols. (SAE paper 2004-01-0450). Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.


2003

Zylstra, B., Tsimhoni, O., Green, P., and Mayer, K. (2003). Driving Performance for Dialing, Radio Tuning, and Destination Entry while Driving Straight Roads (Technical Report UMTRI-2003-35). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Shah, R. and Green, P. (2003). Task Time and Glance Measures for Telematics and Other Functions: A Tabular Summary of the Literature (Technical Report UMTRI-2003-33). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P., George, J., and Jacob, R. (2003). What Constitutes a Typical Cell Phone Call (Technical Report UMTRI-2003-38). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P., Cullinane, B., Zylstra, B., and Smith, D. (2003). Typical Values for Driving Performance with Emphasis on the Standard Deviation of Lane Position: A Summary of Literature (Technical Report UMTRI-2003-42). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P., Nowakowski, C., Mayer, K., and Tsimhoni, O. (2003). Audio-Visual System Design Recommendations from Experience with the UMTRI Driving Simulator. Proceedings of Driving Simulator Conference North America, Dearborn, MI: Ford Motor Company.

Nowakowski, C., Green, P., and Tsimhoni, O. (2003). Common Automotive Navigation System Usability Problems and a Standard Test Protocol to Identify Them. Paper presented at the ITS-America 2003 Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), Washington, D.C. Intelligent Transportation Society of America.

Tsimhoni, O. (2003). Time-Sharing of a Visual In-Vehicle Task while Driving: Findings from the Task Occlusion Method (Technical Report UMTRI-2003-13). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Tsimhoni, O. and Green, P. (2003). Time-Sharing of a Visual In-Vehicle Task while Driving: Effects of Four Key Constructs. Proceedings of the 2nd International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, Park City, Utah, pp. 113-118.

Tsimhoni, O. and Liu, Y. (2003). Modeling Steering using the Queueing Network-Model Human Processor (QN-MHP). Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 47th Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, pp. 1875-1879.

Tsimhoni, O. and Liu, Y. (2003). Steering a Driving Simulator using the Queueing Network-Model Human Processor (QN-MHP). Proceedings of the 2nd International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, Park City, Utah, pp. 81-85.

Tsimhoni, O., Smith, D., and Green, P. (2003). Driving Simulator Assessment of Workload and Risk to Support the Development of an Information Manager (Technical Report UMTRI-2003-09). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Tsimhoni, O., Smith, D., and Green, P. (2003). On-the-road Assessment of Driving Workload and Risk to Support the Development of an Information Manager (Technical Report UMTRI-2003-08). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.


2002

Green, P. (2002). Why Safety and Human Factors Standards Are So Difficult to Establish. In de Waard, Brookhuis, Moraal, and Toffetti (Eds.). Human Factors in Transportation, Communication, Health and the Workplace (pg. 9-26). Maastricht, the Netherlands: Shaker Publishing.

Green, P. (2003). Motor Vehicle Driver Interfaces (Chapter 45). In Jacko, J.A. and Sears, A. (Eds.). Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Green. P. (2002). Driver Eye Fixations (Chapter 4 pp 77-110). In Dewar, R. E. and Olson, P.L. (Eds.), Human Factors in Traffic Safety. Tucson, AZ: Lawers and Judges Publishing.

Mayer, K., Friedman, D., and Green. P. (2002). HUD Feedback to Minimize the Risk of Cellular Phone Use and Number Entry While Driving (Technical Report UMTRI-2002-06). Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Nowakowski, C., Friedman, D., and Green, P. (2002). An Experimental Evaluation of Using Automotive HUDs to Reduce Driver Distraction while Answering Cell Phones, Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 46th Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, CD-ROM

Tsimhoni, O. and Green, P. (2002). Night Vision Enhancement Systems for Ground Vehicles: The Human Factors Literature (Technical Report 2002-05), Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Tsimhoni, O., Smith, D., and Green, P. (2002). Destination Entry while Driving: Voice Recognition Versus Touch Screen Keyboard. (Technical Report 2001-24). Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.


2001

Green, P. (2001). Paper presented at the Telematics Panel Session at the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 45th Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Green, P. (2001). Safeguards for On-Board Wireless Communications. Presentation at Second Annual Plastics in Automotive Safety Conference, Troy, Michigan.

Green, P. (2001). Studies and Research-Different Perspectives (Panel Discussion). Paper presented at the Driver Focus and Technology Forum. Washington, D.C.: National Council of State Legislatures.

Green, P. (2001). Synopsis of Driver Interface Standards and Guidelines for Telematics as of Mid-2001 (Technical Report UMTRI-2001-23), Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. (2001). Telematics: Promise, Potential, and Risks (Panel Discussion). Paper presented at the Management Briefing Seminar, Traverse City, MI. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Office for the Study of Automotive Transportation.

Green, P. (2001). Variations in Task Performance Between Younger and Older Drivers: UMTRI Research on Telematics. Paper presented at the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Conference on Aging and Driving, Southfield, MI.

Green, P. (2001). Why Safety and Ergonomics Standards Are So Difficult to Establish. Presentation at the Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Conference, Turin, Italy.

Green, P., Flynn, M., Vanderhagen, G., Ziomek, J., Ullman, E., and Mayer, K. (2001). Automotive Industry Trends in Electronics: Year 2000 Survey of Senior Executives (Technical Report 2001-15). Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. and Tsimhoni, O. (2001). Visual occlusion to assess the demands of driving and tasks: the literature. Presentation at the Exploring the Occlusion Technique: Progress in Recent Research and Applications Workshop, Torino, Italy. Available:

Lai, J., Tsimhoni, O., and Green, P. (2001). Comprehension of Synthesized Speech while Driving and in the Lab. International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, Beijing, China.

Lai, J., Cheng, K., Green, P. and Tsimhoni, O. (2001). On the Road and on the Web: Comprehension of Synthetic and Human Speech While Driving. CHI 2001 Conference Proceedings, New York, N.Y.: Association for Computing Machinery.

Nowakowski, C., Friedman, D., and Green, P. (2001). Cell Phone Ring Suppression and HUD Caller ID: Effectiveness in Reducing Momentary Driver Distraction Under Varying Workload Levels (Technical Report 2001-29). Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Nowakowski, C. and Green, P. (2001). Prediction of Menu Selection Times Parked and While Driving Using the SAE J2365 Method (Technical Report 2000-49). Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Tsimhoni, O. and Green, P. (2001). Visual Demand of Driving and the Execution of Display-Intensive, In-Vehicle Tasks. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 45th Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, CD-ROM.

Tsimhoni, O., Green, P., and Lai, J. (2001). Natural and Synthesized Speech while Driving: Effects on User Performance. International Journal of Speech Technology, 4(2), 155-169. Available:

Tsimhoni, O., Green, P., and Watanabe, H. (2001). Detecting and Reading Text on HUDS: Effects of Driving Workload and Message Location. Paper presented at the 11th Annual ITS America Meeting, Miami, FL, CD-ROM.


2000

Fitzpatrick, K., Wooldridge, M.D., Tsimhoni, O., Collins, J.M., Green, P., Bauer, K., Parma, K.D., Koppa, R., Harwood, D.W., Krammes, R.A., and Poggioli, B. (2000). Alternative Design Consistency Rating Methods for Two-Lane Rural Highways (Technical Report FHWA-RD-99-172). McLean, VA: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

Green, P. (2000). Crashes Induced by Driver Information Systems and What Can Be Done to Reduce Them (SAE paper 2000-01-C008). Convergence 2000 Conference Proceedings (SAE publication P-360). Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, 26-36.

Green, P. (2000). The Human Interface for ITS Display and Control Systems: Developing International Standards to Promote Safety and Usability. Invited paper presented at the International Workshop on ITS Human Interface in Japan, Utsu, Japan.

Nowakowski, C., Green, P., and Kojima, M. (2000). How to Design a Traffic-Information Web Site: A Human Factors Approach. ITS Quarterly (summer 2000 issue), 41-51.

Nowakowski, C., Green, P., and Kojima, M. (2000). A Human Factors Approach to the Design of Traffic Information Web Sites. Paper presented at the 10th Annual ITS-America Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, (CD-ROM).

Sloss, D. and Green, P. (2000). National Automotive Center 21st Century Truck (21T) Dual Use Safety Focus (SAE Paper 2000-01-3426). Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers. (Published in National Automotive Center Technical Review, Warren, MI: U.S. Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command, National Automotive Center, 63-70).

Wooldridge, M., Bauer, K., Green, P., and Fitzpatrick, K. (2000). Comparison of Workload Values Obtained from Test Track, Simulator, and On-Road Experiments. Paper presented at the Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C.

Nowakowski, C., Utsui, Y., and Green, P. (2000). Navigation System Evaluation: The Effects of Driver Workload and Input Devices on Destination Entry Time and Driving Performance and Their Implications to the SAE Recommended Practice (Technical Report UMTRI-2000-20). Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Tsimhoni, O., Watanabe, H., and Green, P. (2000). Display of Short Text Messages on Automotive HUDs: Effects of Workload and Location on Driving (Technical Report UMTRI-2000-13). Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Richardson, B. and Green, P. (2000). Trends in North American Intelligent Transportation Systems: A Year 2000 Appraisal (Technical Report UMTRI-2000-9). Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.


1999

Green, P. (1999). Estimating Compliance with the 15-Second Rule for Driver-Interface Usability and Safety. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 43rd Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, CD-ROM.

Green, P. (1999). The 15-Second Rule for Driver Information Systems. ITS America Ninth Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings, Washington, D.C.: ITS America, CD-ROM.

Reed, M. and Green, P. (1999). Comparison of Driving Performance on-Road and in a Low-Cost Driving Simulator Using a Concurrent Telephone Dialing Task. Ergonomics, 42(8), 1015-1037.

Tsimhoni, O. and Green, P. (1999). Visual Demand of Driving Curves Determined by Visual Occlusion. Paper presented at the Vision in Vehicles 8 Conference, Boston, MA.

Watanabe, H., Yoo, H., Tsimhoni, O, and Green, P. (1999). The Effect of HUD Warning Location on Driver Responses. Paper presented at the 6th Annual ITS World Congress, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Washington, D.C.: ITS America.

Tsimhoni, O., Yoo, H., and Green, P. (1999). Effects of Workload and Task Complexity on Driving and Task Performance for In-Vehicle Displays As Assessed by Visual Occlusion (UMTRI-99-37). Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Nowakowski, C., Lenneman, J., Kojima, M., and Green, P. (1999). Development of Traffic-Information Web-Site-Design Guidelines (UMTRI 99-30). Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. (1999). Navigation System Data Entry: Estimation of Task Times (Technical Report UMTRI-99-17). Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Yoo, H. and Green, P. (1999). Driver Behavior While Following Cars, Trucks, and Buses (Technical Report UMTRI-99-14). Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Kojima, M., Nowakowski, C., and Green, P. (1999). Organization and Structure of Traffic Management Centers: Two Case Studies in Michigan (Technical Report UMTRI-99-13). Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Yoo, H., Tsimhoni, O., Watanabe, H., Green, P. and Shah, R. (1999). Display of HUD Warnings to Drivers: Determining an Optimal Location (Technical Report UMTRI-99-9). Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Nowakowski, C., Green, P., and Kojima, M. (1999). Human Factors in Traffic Management Centers: A Literature Review (Technical Report UMTRI-99-5). Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Brooks, A., Lenneman, J., George-Maletta, K., Hunter, D., and Green, P. (1999). Preliminary Examinations of the Time to Read Electronic Maps: The Effects of Text and Graphic Characteristics (Technical Report UMTRI-98-36). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.


1998

Bieliauskas, L.A., Roper, B.R., Trobe, J., Green, P., and Lacy, M. (1998). Cognitive Measures, Driving Safety, and Alzheimer's Disease. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 12(3), 206-212.

Green, P., Fleming, J., and Katz, S. (1998). Driving Performance Evaluation of the AliScout Navigation System: A Preliminary Analysis. Paper presented at the 1998 ITS-America Meeting. Washington, D.C.: ITS America.

Green, P. (1998). Human Factors/Ergonomics of Driver-Operated Controls and Displays: Short Course Notes (notes for Chrysler Corporation). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Steinfeld, A. and Green, P. (1998). Driver Responses to Navigation Information on Full-Windshield, Head-Up Displays. International Journal of Vehicle Design, 19(2), 135-149.

Green, P. (1998). Reading Electronic Area Maps: An Annotated Bibliography (Technical Report UMTRI-98-38). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Brooks, A., Nowakowski, C., Green, P. (1998). Turn-by-Turn Displays Versus Electronic Maps: An On-the-Road Comparison of Driver Glance Behavior (Technical Report UMTRI-98-37). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Katz, S., Green, P., and Fleming, J. (1998). Usability of Formats for Coding Traffic Information on Automotive Displays (Technical Report UMTRI-98-35). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Shah, R., Nowakowski, C. and Green, P. (1998). U.S. Highway Attributes Relevant to Lane Tracking (Technical Report UMTRI-98-34). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Fleming, J., Green, P., and Katz, S. (1998). Driver Performance and Memory for Traffic Messages: Effects of the Number of Messages, Audio Quality, and Relevance (Technical Report UMTRI-98-22). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. (1998). Visual and Task Demands of Driver Information Systems (Technical Report UMTRI-98-16). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Brooks, A. and Green, P. (1998). Map Design: A Simulator Evaluation of the Time to Read Electronic Navigation Displays (Technical Report UMTRI-98-7). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Nowakowski, C. and Green, P. (1998). Map Design: An On-the-Road Evaluation of the Time to Read Electronic Navigation Displays (Technical Report UMTRI-98-4). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.


1997

Green, P., Waller, P.F., Blow, F.C., Olson, P., Barends, B., Freund, D., and Katz, S. (1997). Effects of Alcohol, Age, and Gender on Measures of Driving Performance in a Simulator. Poster presented at the Research Society on Alcoholism, San Francisco, CA. (For abstract see Alcoholism 21(3), May 1997, p. 111A.)

Green, P. (1997). Potential Safety Impacts of Automotive Navigation Systems. Paper presented at the Automotive Land Navigation Conference, June 18, 1997, Detroit, MI.

Waller, P.F. and Green, P. (1997). Human Factors in Transportation. In Salvendy, G. (ed.), Human Factors and Ergonomics Handbook (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.

Li, C., Sumie, M., and Green, P. (1997). Repeatability of Secondary Task Workload Assessments between Driving Simulators in Two Countries (Technical Report UMTRI 97-17). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Manes, D. and Green, P. (1997). Evaluation of a Driver Interfaces: Effects of Control Type (Knob Versus Buttons) and Menu Structure (Depth Versus Breadth) (Technical Report UMTRI-97-42). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Sumie, M., Li, C., and Green, P. (1997). Usability of Menu-Based Interfaces for Motor Vehicle Secondary Functions (Technical Report UMTRI-97-19). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Damouth, D. and Green, P. (1997). Influence of Warning Message Content on Message Understandability and When Drivers Respond (Technical Report UMTRI-97-22). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Olson, A. and Green, P. (1997). A Description of the UMTRI Driving Simulator Architecture and Alternatives (Technical report UMTRI-97-15). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. and Olson, A. (1997). A Technical Description of the UMTRI Driving Simulator Family-1996 Implementation (Technical Report UMTRI 97-12). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Manes, D., Green, P., and Hunter, D. (1997). Prediction of Destination Entry and Retrieval Times Using Keystroke-Level Models (Technical Report UMTRI-96-37). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (Also released as EECS-ITS LAB FT97-077)

Katz, S., Fleming, J., Green, P., Hunter, D.R., and Damouth, D. (1997). On-the-Road Human Factors Evaluation of the Ali-Scout Navigation System (Technical Report UMTRI-96-32). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.


1996

Green, P. (1996). In-Vehicle Information: Design of Driver Interfaces for Route Guidance. Paper presented at TRB Annual Meeting. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, Transportation Research Board.

Green, P. and Olson, A. (1996). Practical Aspects of Prototyping Instrument Clusters (SAE paper 960532). Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

Moroney, W.F., Green, P., and Konz, S. (1996). Providing the Team Experience to Human Factors and Ergonomics Students. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 40th Annual Meeting, 445-448.

Green, P. (1996). Driver Interfaces for Vehicles of the Future. Inside Automotives, November/December, 3(6), 33-36.

Green, P. (1996). Customer Needs, New Technology, Human Factors, and Driver Science Research for Future Automobiles. Journal of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers 99(926), 15-18. (Published in Japanese)

Green, P. (1996). What We Need to Learn to Build Usable Driver Information Systems for Future Vehicles. OSAT's Focus on the Future, Fall, pp. 6-7. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. (1996). Development of Easy-to-Understand Vehicle Malfunction Warnings. International Journal of Vehicle Design, 17(1), 27-39.

Bieliauskas, L.A., Roper, B.R., Trobe, J., Green, P., and Lacy, M. (1996). Cognitive Measures, Driving Safety, and Alzheimer Disease (abstract). Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 2, 60.

Manes, D., Green, P., and Hunter, D. (1996). Glance Frequencies to the Ali-Scout Navigation System (Technical Report UMTRI-96-42). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Steinfeld, A., Manes, D., Green, P., and Hunter, D. (1996). Destination Entry and Retrieval with the Ali-Scout Navigation System (Technical Report UMTRI-96-30). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Yoo, H., Hunter, D., and Green, P. (1996). Automotive Collision Warning Effectiveness: A Simulator Comparison of Text vs. Icons (Technical Report UMTRI-96-29). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.


1995

Green, P. (1995). Human Factors and New Driver Interfaces: Lessons Learned from a Major Research Project. Proceedings of the 1995 Annual Meeting of ITS-America. Washington, D.C.: ITS America, 1001-1011.

Green, P. and Bagian, T. (1995). Teaming Turnpikes and Trajectories: Opportunities for NASA-Automotive Industry Collaboration (paper AIAA-95-LS-178). Presented at the Life Sciences and Space Medicine Conference and Exhibition'95. Houston, TX: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

Green, P. and George, K. (1995). When Should Auditory Guidance Systems Tell Drivers to Turn? Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting, 1072-1076.

Green, P. (1995). A Driver Interface for a Road Hazard Warning System: Development and Preliminary Evaluation. Proceedings of the Second World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 4, 1795-1800.

Green, P.(1995). Automotive Techniques. In Weimer, J. (Ed.), Research Techniques in Human Engineering, 2nd ed. (pp. 165-208), New York: Prentice-Hall.

Katz, S., Green, P. , and Fleming, J. (1995). Calibration and Baseline Driving Data for the UMTRI Driver Interface Research Vehicle (Technical Report UMTRI-95-2). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

George, K., Green, P., and Fleming, J. (1995). Timing of Auditory Route Guidance Instructions (Technical Report UMTRI-95-6). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (Also available from NTIS as PB-96-187190)

Steinfeld, A. and Green, P. (1995). Driver Response Times to Full-Windshield, Head-Up Displays for Navigation and Vision Enhancement (Technical Report UMTRI-95-29). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Davis, B.T. and Green, P. (1995). Benefits of Sound for Driving Simulation: An Experimental Evaluation (Technical Report UMTRI-95-16). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Reed, M. and Green, P. (1995). Validation of a Low-Cost Driving Simulation Using a Telephone Dialing Task (Technical Report 95-19). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. and Bagian, T. (eds.) (1995). National ITS Safety and Human Factors Research Needs (Technical Report). Washington, D.C.: ITS-America.

Green, P. (1995). Vid-Eval.bas, Video Display Evaluation Program. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. (1995). Human Factors (notes for Carpenter Technologies). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.


1994

Green, P. (1994). Human Factors and Process Control: A Special Course for PPG. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.


1993

Serafin, C., Wen, C., Paelke, G., and Green, P. (1993). Car Phone Usability: A Human Factors Test. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting, 220-224.

Sweet, R.E. and Green, P. (1993). UMTRI's Instrumented Car. UMTRI Research Review, January-February, 1-11.

MacAdam, C.C., Green, P.A., and Reed, M.P. (1993). An Overview of Current UMTRI Driving Simulators. UMTRI Research Review, July-August, 24(1), 1-8.

Green, P. (1993). Tools and Methods for Developing Easy to Use Driver Information Systems. In Haug, E.J. (Ed.), Concurrent Engineering Tools and Technologies for Mechanical System Design (pp. 959-970). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Green, P. (1993). Symbols for Controls and Displays. In Peacock, B. and Karwowski, W. (Eds.), Automotive Ergonomics (pp. 237-268). London: Taylor and Francis.

Chatel, D.C., Bieliauskas, L.A., Green, P., Warner, J. and McSweeny, A.J. (1993). Cognitive Predictors of Driving Ability in the Elderly (abstract). The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 7, 330.

Green, (1993). Technical Summary: Assessment of Effect of In-Vehicle Display on Driver Performance. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. (1993). Human Factors and In-Vehicle Information Systems Short Course Notes (for Motorola). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Paelke, G. and Green, P. (1993). Entry of Destinations into Route Guidance Systems: A Human Factors Evaluation (Technical Report UMTRI-93-45). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P., Lin, B., and Bagian, T. (1993). Effect of Road Geometry on Driving Workload: A Pilot Experiment (Technical Report UMTRI-93-39, GLCTTR 22-91/01). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P., Williams, M., Hoekstra, E., George, K. and Wen, C. (1993). Initial On-the-Road Tests of Driver Information System Interfaces: Examination of Navigation, Traffic Information, IVSAWS, and Vehicle Monitoring (Technical report UMTRI-93-32). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P., Hoekstra, E., and Williams, M. (1993). On-The-Road Tests of Driver Interfaces: Examination of a Navigation System and a Car Phone (Technical Report UMTRI-93-35). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P., Hoekstra, E., Williams, M., Wen, C., and George, K. (1993). Examination of a Videotape-Based Method to Evaluate the Usability of Route Guidance and Traffic Information Systems (Technical Report UMTRI-93-31). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Williams, M., Hoekstra, E., and Green. P. (1993). Development and Evaluation of a Vehicle Monitor Driver Interface (Technical Report UMTRI-93-22). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P., Levison, W., Paelke, G., and Serafin, C. (1993). Preliminary Human Factors Guidelines for Driver Information Systems (Technical Report UMTRI-93-21). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (Also published as FHWA-RD-94-087. McLean, VA: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, December, 1995.)

Paelke, G. and Green, P. (1993). Development and Testing of a Traffic Information System Driver Interface (Technical Report UMTRI-93-20). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. (1993). Human Factors of In-Vehicle Driver Information Systems: An Executive Summary (Technical Report UMTRI-93-18). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (Also published as FHWA-RD-95-014. McLean, VA: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, December, 1995.)

Serafin, C., Wen, C., Paelke, G. and Green, P. (1993). Development and Human Factors Tests of Car Telephones (Technical Report UMTRI-93-17). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Hoekstra, E., Williams, M., and Green, P. (1993). Development and Driver Understanding of Hazard Warning and Location Symbols for IVSAWS (Technical Report UMTRI-93-16). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. (1993). Suggested Procedures and Acceptance Limits for Assessing the Safety and Ease of Use of Driver Information Systems (Technical Report UMTRI-93-13). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (Also published as FHWA-RD-94-089. McLean, VA: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, December, 1995.)

Green, P. (1993). Measures and Methods Used to Assess the Safety and Usability of Driver Information Systems (Technical Report UMTRI-93-12). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (Also published as FHWA-RD-94-088. McLean, VA: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, August, 1995.)


1992

Paelke, G. and Green, P. (1992). Development of a Traffic Information System Driver Interface. Proceedings of the IVHS-America 1992 Annual Meeting. Washington, D.C.: IVHS-America, 793-802.

Green, P. (1992). Safety in IVHS: What Is Real? Proceedings of the IVHS-America 1992 Annual Meeting. Washington, D.C.: IVHS-America, 832-834.

Green, P. and Williams (1992). Perspective in Orientation/Navigation Displays: A Human Factors Test. The Third International Conference on Vehicle Navigation and Information Systems (VNIS'92). Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 221-226. (IEEE Catalog # 92CH3198-9)

Green, P. and Brand, J. (1992). Future In-Car Information Systems: Input from Focus Groups (SAE paper 920614). Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers. (Also in SAE Transactions 1992, 1993, 101, 804-812)

Green, P., Paelke, G., and Boreczky, J. (1992). The "Potato Head" Method for Identifying Driver Preferences for Vehicle Controls. International Journal of Vehicle Design, 13(4), 352-364.

Green, P. (1992). Review of Eye Fixation Recording Methods and Equipment (Technical Report UMTRI-92-28). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (IVHS Technical Report 92-20)

Green, P. (1992). American Human Factors Research On In-Vehicle Navigation Systems (Technical Report UMTRI-92-47). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Hoekstra, E., Williams, M., Green, P. and Paelke, G. (1992). Usability of Text, Graphic, and Video In-Car Traffic Information for Diversion Decisions (Technical Report UMTRI-92-40). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Williams, M. and Green, P. (1992). Development and Testing of Driver Interfaces for Navigation Displays (Technical Report UMTRI-92-21). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.


1991

Serafin, C., Williams, M., Paelke, G., and Green, P. (1991). Functions and Features of Future Driver Information Systems (Technical Report UMTRI-91-16). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P., Serafin, C., Williams, M., and Paelke, G. (1991). What Functions and Features Should Be in Driver Information Systems of the Year 2000? Vehicle Navigation and Information Systems Conference (VNIS'91), 483-498. Also published as (SAE paper 912792). Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

Serafin, C. and Green, P. (1991). Instrument Panel Lighting Levels Preferred by Drivers. Queinnec, Y. and Daniellou, F. (eds.) Designing for Everyone and Everybody. Proceedings of the 11th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association. London: Taylor and Francis, 1456-1458.

Green, P., Williams, M., Serafin, C., and Paelke, G. (1991). Human Factors Research on Future Automotive Instrumentation: A Progress Report. Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society, 1120-1124.

Williams, M., Green, P., and Paelke, G. (1991). Further Development of Warnings for Automotive Lifts (Technical Report UMTRI-91-43). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Peterson, S., Green, P., and Bos, T. (1991). Vid-Time.bas (Reaction Time to Video Displays). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Bos, T. and Green, P. (1991). RT.exe (Response Time Software). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. and Bos, T. (1991). TY119.bas (Typing Test Written in Basic). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.


1990

Green, P. (1990). Instrument Panel Displays and Ease of Use. Body Engineering Journal, 18(1), 40-41.

Green, P. (1990). Readings on Human Factors in Computer Systems: The 1989 List. SIGCHI Bulletin, 21(4), 20-26.

Green, P., Boreczky, J., and Kim, S. (1990). Applications of Rapid Prototyping to Control and Display Design (SAE paper #900470, Special Publication SP-809). Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers. (Also published in SAE Transactions 1990, 1991, 99, 647-668)

Serafin, C. and Green, P. (1990). Driver Preferences for Instrument Panel Lighting Levels (Technical Report UMTRI-90-5). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Chong, M., Clauer, T., and Green, P. (1990). Development of Candidate Symbols for Automobile Functions (Technical Report UMTRI-90-25). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Boreczky, J. and Green, P. (1990). Photometric Measurement of Aydin Controls 8980 CRTs (Technical Report UMTRI-90-28). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Finnegan, P. and Green, P. (1990). The Time to Change Lanes: A Literature Review (Technical Report UMTRI-90-34). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Williams, M. and Green, P. (1990). Interfacing the Nintendo Power Glove to a Macintosh Computer (IVHS Technical Report-90-14). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Boreczky, J., Green, P., Wesselman, H., and Beattie, C. (1990). Wizard of Oz - User Interface Prototyper. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.


1989

Green, P. (1989). Instrument Panel Displays and Ease of Use. UMTRI Research Review, 19, 1-14.

Boreczky, J. and Green, P. (1989). Review of MicroSaint Simulation Software. Human Factors Society Bulletin, 32(11), 9-11.

Green, P. and Goldstein, S. (1989). Further Analysis of Driver Preferences for Secondary Controls (Technical Report UMTRI-89-4). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (NTIS No. PB 90 149782/AS)

Green, P., Paelke, G., and Clack, K. (1989). Instrument Panel Controls in Sedans: What Drivers Prefer and Why (Technical Report UMTRI-89-15). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (NTIS No. PB 90 184235/AS)

Green, P. and Olson, A. (1989). The Development and Use of the UMTRI Driving Simulator (Technical Report UMTRI-89-25). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (NTIS No. PB 90 115940/AS)

Eberhard, J. and Green, P. (1989). The Development and Testing of Warnings for Automotive Lifts (Technical Report UMTRI-89-26). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. (1989). Human Factors Considerations in the Design of Controls and Displays (Tutorial T30 notes). Bellingham, WA: Society of Photo-Optical and Instrumentation Engineers.

Green, P. (1989). Human Factors Considerations in the Design of Controls and Displays (Tutorial T74 notes). Bellingham, WA: Society of Photo-Optical and Instrumentation Engineers.


1988

Sayer, J.R. and Green, P. (1988). Current ISO Automotive Symbols vs. Alternatives: A Preference Study (SAE paper #880057 and SAE Special Publication SP-752). Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

Sayer, J.R. and Green, P. (1988). Student-Initiated Human Factors Research at Michigan: A Guide for Research on a Shoestring, Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 31st Annual Meeting, Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society, 485-489.

Green, P. (1988). Human Factors and Automobile Instrument Panel Display Design. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Optical Engineering and Industrial Sensing for Advanced Manufacturing Technologies in Dearborn, MI. Bellingham, WA: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

Adams, S., Goldstein, S., Zeltner, K., Ratanaproeksa, P., and Green, P. (1988). Legibility Abstracts from the UMTRI Library (Technical Report UMTRI-88-4). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (NTIS No. PB 89 182653/AS)

Bos, T., Kerst, J., and Green, P. (1988). Response Time System for Instrument Panel Evaluation (Technical Report UMTRI-88-9). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Sayer, J.R. and Green, P. (1988). Automobile Instrument Panel Symbols: Do Drivers Prefer Alternatives Over Those in the ISO Standard? (Technical Report UMTRI-88-10). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (NTIS No. PB 88 181911/AS)

Zeltner, K., Ratanaproeksa, P., Goldstein, S., Adams, S., and Green, P. (1988). Selected Abstracts and Reviews of the Legibility Literature (Technical Report UMTRI-88-22). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (NTIS No. PB 89 182646/AS)

Green, P., Goldstein, S., Zeltner, K., and Adams, S. (1988). Legibility of Text on Instrument Panels: A Literature Review (Technical Report UMTRI-88-34). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (NTIS No. PB 90 141342/AS).

Bos, T., Green, P., and Kerst, J. (1988). How Should Instrument Panel Display Legibility Be Tested? (Technical Report UMTRI-88-35). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (NTIS No. PB 90 141375/AS)

Boreczky, J., Green, P., Bos, T., and Kerst, J. (1988). Effects of Size, Location, Contrast, Illumination, and Color on the Legibility of Numeric Speedometers (Technical Report UMTRI-88-36). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (NTIS No. PB 90 150533/AS)

Green, P. (1988). Human Factors and Gauge Design: A Literature Review (Technical Report UMTRI8837). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (NTIS as PB 90 141334/AS)

Green, P. (1988). Ergonomics of Automotive Displays (Tutorial T26 notes), Bellingham, WA: Society of Photo-Optical and Instrumentation Engineers.


1987

Green, P. (1987). Tips on Writing a Good Paper Proposal. Human Factors Society Computer Systems Technical Group Newsletter, 14(2), 6-10 (also reprinted in the Human Factors Society Consumer Products Newsletter, October 1987, 12(3), 3-6).

Saldana, N., Elkerton, J., and Green, P. (1987). User Memory Load and Procedural Manipulation with a Window Interface. Paper presented at the Fourth Mid-Central Ergonomics/Human Factors Conference.

Green, P. (1987). Readings on Human Factors in Computer Systems. ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 19(2), 15-20.

Green, P. and Baker, D. (1987). Page Format and User Understanding of Command Language Computer Manuals. pp. 259-265 in Mark, L.S., Warm, J.S., and Huston, R.L. (eds.), Human Factors and Ergonomics: Recent Research. New York: Springer-Verlag, Inc.

Green, P. and Adams, S. (1987). Who Are the Potential Users of a CAD System? (Technical Report UMTRI-87-15). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (NTIS No. PB 89 182935/AS)

Turner, C. and Green, P. (1987). Human Factors Research on Automobile Secondary Controls: A Literature Review (Technical Report UMTRI-87-20). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (NTIS No. PB 90 149675/AS)

Green, P., Ottens, D., and Adams, S. (1987). Secondary Controls in Domestic 1986 Model Year Cars (Technical Report UMTRI-87-21). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (NTIS No. PB 90 149642/AS)

Green, P., Ottens, D., Kerst, J., Goldstein, S., and Adams, S. (1987). Driver Preferences for Secondary Controls (Technical Report UMTRI-87-47). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (NTIS No. PB 90 150541/AS)

Bos, T., Green, P., and Boreczky, J. (1987). Videotape Analysis of a CAD System User Interface: A Case Study (Technical Report UMTRI-87-49). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (NTIS No. PB 89 181903/AS)


1986

Green, P. (1986). Review Process for Proposals. Human Factors Society Computer Systems Technical Group Newsletter, 13(1), 6-14.

Green, P. and Baker, D. (1986). Page Format and the Understanding of Command Language Documentation. Paper presented at the 1986 Mid-Central Ergonomics/Human Factors Conference, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.

Sivak, M., Olson, P., and Green, P. (1986). Human Factors Methods in the Design of Vehicle Components. International Journal of Vehicle Design, 7, 331-337.

Green, P. (1986). Customer Setup of the NCR-PC-8 Personal Computer: A Case Study (Technical Report UMTRI-86-25). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Wesselman, H. and Green, P. (1986). Wizard of Oz User's Manual Version 4.0 (Technical Report No. UMTRI-86-50). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. and Wesselman, H. (1986). Design Rationale for the Wizard of Oz User Interface Prototyper (Technical Report UMTRI-86-51). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.


1985

Sivak, M., Olson, P.L., and Green, P. (1985). Human Factors Methods in the Design of Vehicle Components. Paper presented at the IAVD Congress on Vehicle Design and Components, Geneva, Switzerland.

Green, P. and Wei-Haas, L. (1985). The Rapid Development of User Interfaces: Experience with the Wizard of Oz Method. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society-29th Annual Meeting, 470-474. (Accompanied by Green, P., Wei-Haas, L., Reifeis, S., and Ottens, D. A Brief Demonstration of the Wizard of Oz Rapid Prototyper (videotape).)

Green, P. and Wei-Haas, L. (1985). The Wizard of Oz: A Tool for the Rapid Development of User Interfaces (Technical Report UMTRI-85-27). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. (1985). Human Factors Test of a Driver Alertness Device (Technical Report UMTRI-85-49). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (NTIS No. PB 86 181229/AS)


1984

Green, P., Butler, K.H., Overmeyer, S.P., Thompson, D., Cochran, D.R., and Phillips, M.D. (1984). Red Group Report (In Human Factors in Computer Systems Current Trends and Recommended Directions: Proceedings of the Vail Workshop, Mike Atwood (Ed.)). Santa Monica, CA, Human Factors Society.

Green, P. (1984). Driver Understanding of Fuel and Engine Gauges (SAE paper 840314). Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers (see also SAE Transactions 1984, 93, 1985, 566-684).

Green, P. (1984). Teaching a Course on Human Factors and Computer Systems. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 4(12), 43-45.

Green, P. (1984). Preliminary Design of the Ford TM-3 Tripcomputer (Technical Report UMTRI-84-6). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Miller, D.E., Peterson, E.A., and Green, P. (1984). Comparison of CRT Antireflection Filters (Technical Report UMTRI-84-8). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (NTIS No. PB 84 202753)

Green, P., Gillespie, T., Reifeis, S., Wei-Haas, L., and Ottens, D. (1984). Subjective Evaluation of Steering Effort Levels (Technical Report UMTRI-84-39). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (NTIS . PB 86 135019/AS)


1983

Green, P. (1983). Future Directions in HF and Computer Systems: A Meeting Report. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 27th Annual Meeting, 51.

Green, P. (1983). A Critique of the Ford Multigauge (Ford Confidential Technical Report). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. (1983). What Do Drivers Say They Use Speedometers and Tachometers For? (Technical Report UMTRI-83-49). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Green, P. and Miller, D. (1983). A Human Factors Evaluation of a Vehicle Maintenance Monitor (Videotape report produced for the Ford Motor Company Electrical & Electronics Division and Automotive Safety Office). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.


1982

Green, P. (1982). The Gaithersburg Meeting (and Beyond). Human Factors Society Bulletin, 25(5), 1-2.

Green, P. and Levine, R.E. (1982). Driver Understanding of Fuel and other Basic Gauges (Technical Report UM-HSRI-82-46). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Highway Safety Research Institute.


1981

Green, P. (1981). Displays for Automotive Instrument Panels: Production and Rating of Symbols. HSRI Research Review, 12(1), 1-12.

Gingold, M., Shteingart, S., and Green, P. (1981). Truck Drivers' Suggestions and Preferences for Instrument Panel Symbols (Technical Report UM-HSRI-81-30). Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Highway Safety Research Institute. (NTIS No. PB 82 224379)

Green, P. and Burgess, W.T. (1981). Windshield Damage and Driving Safety (Technical Report UMHSRI81-35). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Highway Safety Research Institute.


1980

Green, P. (1980). A Computer Simulation of Headlamp Variables and Drivers' Sight Distances: Operating Instructions (Technical Report UM-HSRI-80-44). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Highway Safety Research Institute.

Green, P. and Burgess, W.T. (1980). Debugging a Symbol Set for Identifying Displays: Production and Screening Studies (Technical Report UM-HSRI-80-64). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Highway Safety Research Institute.

 


1979-1972

Green, P. (1979). Development of Pictographic Symbols for Vehicle Controls and Displays (SAE paper #790383). Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

Green, P. (1979). What Do We Do? Human Factors Society Bulletin, 23(5), 2.

Green, P. and Olson, P.L. (1979). Eye Fixations of Drivers in Response to Various Retroreflective Treatments of a Semitrailer. HSRI Research Review, 10(3), 19-24.

Green, P. (1979). Automobile Multifunction Stalk Controls: Literature, Hardware and Human Factors Review (Technical Report UM-HSRI-79-78). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Highway Safety Research Institute.

Green, P. (1979). Rational Ways to Increase Pictographic Symbol Discriminability (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation). Department of Industrial & Operations Engineering and Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Dissertation Abstracts International (University Microfilms No. 79-25, 156).

Green, P., Kubacki, M., Olson, P.L., and Sivak, M. (1979). Accidents and the Nighttime Conspicuity of Trucks (Technical Report UM-HSRI-79-92). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Highway Safety Research Institute.

Green, P. and Pew, R.W. (1978). Evaluating Pictographic Symbols: An Automotive Application. Human Factors, 20(1), 103-114.

Pew, R.W. and Green, P. (eds.) (1978-Current). Human Factors Engineering Short Course Notes (Engineering Summer Conference). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Chrysler Center for Continuing Engineering Education (issued annually, 2 volumes, 1300 pages).

Green, P. (1977). The Prediction of Choice Response Times for Pictographic Symbols. Department of Industrial & Operations Engineering technical report, University of Michigan. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, August 1980, p.77 (manuscript 2102).

Green, P. and Davis, G. (1976). The Recognition Time of Rotated Pictographic Symbols for Automobile Controls. Journal of Safety Research, 8(4), 180-183.

Green, P. (1975). UM/AMP K Press Guarding Project, Field Study 2. Department of Industrial & Operations Engineering Technical report, University of Michigan.

Green, P., Allen, B., Appalucci, L., and Conroy, P. (1972). Design of a New Dashboard for the Ford Pinto-Human Factors Considerations. Unpublished report submitted in conjunction with the Drexel University entry into the Urban Vehicle Design Competition.