1.
The six dimensions of wellness include all of the following EXCEPT
A.
emotional wellness.
B.
environmental, or planetary, wellness.
C.
spiritual wellness.
D.
dietary wellness.


2.
Which of the following best describes emotional wellness?
A.
taking time to explore your thoughts
B.
getting regular medical checkups
C.
being open to new ideas
D.
finding principles by which to live your life


3.
Life expectancy in 1900 was approximately _____ years.
A.
50
B.
60
C.
70
D.
80


4.
Approximately what percentage of Americans are not regularly physically active?
A.
20%
B.
30%
C.
60%
D.
80%


5.
All of the following are benefits of regular exercise and physical fitness EXCEPT
A.
increased resistance to fatigue.
B.
decreased risk of diabetes.
C.
decreased muscle mass.
D.
improved selfimage.


6.
Factors involved in wellness
A.
are outside individual control.
B.
often interact.
C.
are difficult to identify.
D.
are easy to change.


7.
When choosing a target behavior to change, you maximize your chances of success by
A.
changing all your negative behaviors at once.
B.
starting with a complicated behavior first.
C.
starting with something simple like snacking on candy.
D.
combining behaviors such as starting exercise and stopping smoking.


8.
Donna is about 25 pounds overweight, has tried a variety of diets, and has repeatedly failed to maintain weight loss. She defends her weight with the explanation that almost all of her relatives are overweight and none has ever been successful with attempts to lose weight. Donna can best be described as
A.
being unmotivated.
B.
having an external locus of control.
C.
having an internal locus of control.
D.
being a victim of heredity.


9.
Monitoring your behavior involves recording all of the following EXCEPT
A.
several problem behaviors simultaneously.
B.
where the behavior happened.
C.
what you were doing.
D.
your thoughts and feelings at the time.


10.
A personal contract for behavior change
A.
states your objective and gives details of your plan for behavior change.
B.
records the circumstances surrounding your target behavior.
C.
prioritizes the behaviors that you are considering changing.
D.
assesses your motivation for changing a health behavior.


11.
A lack of motivation or commitment to change an unwanted behavior may be due to
A.
a strong inner drive.
B.
a lack of negative effects.
C.
a strong social support system.
D.
a high level of selfconfidence.


12.
Which is an example of blaming?
A.
I'll start my walking program when I get some sunscreen.
B.
My workout partner did not call me to go to the fitness center.
C.
I'll begin my exercise program when next semester starts.
D.
I did not have time to dry my hair before work, so I'll walk tomorrow.


13.
Prevention is the most effective way of dealing with chronic disease.
A. True
B. False


14.
Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death for individuals under age 45.
A. True
B. False


15.
People in the contemplation stage of change are planning to take action within a month.
A. True
B. False


16.
Expensive rewards are recommended for successful behavior change.
A. True
B. False


17.
Define the six dimensions of wellness discussed in the text, and for each dimension, list two behaviors or habits that would promote its development.

Answer:


18.
List at least five benefits of physical activity, and describe how they contribute to wellness.

Answer:


19.
List the five major steps in a behavior change plan of action. Select a target behavior, and briefly describe how you would apply the steps to that behavior.

Answer:


20.
What percentage of Americans are not physically active at all?
A.
5%
B.
15%
C.
25%
D.
50%


21.
The Surgeon General's report on physical activity recommends
A.
highintensity exercise.
B.
exercising 1 or 2 days per week.
C.
burning about 150 calories per day through physical activity.
D.
some type of resistance training every day.


22.
Heart disease is linked most closely with
A.
low cardiorespiratory fitness.
B.
low muscular strength.
C.
poor flexibility.
D.
poor reaction time.


23.
The best way to lose body fat is through
A.
crash diets.
B.
exercise alone.
C.
diet pills and supplements.
D.
sensible diet and regular exercise.


24.
The amount of overload needed to maintain or improve one's fitness level is determined in terms of all of the following EXCEPT
A.
time (duration).
B.
intensity.
C.
frequency.
D.
specificity.


25.
If you must temporarily stop exercising regularly, which of the following factors should be maintained while the others are curtailed?
A.
specificity
B.
intensity
C.
frequency
D.
time


26.
The maximal improvement in the body's ability to transport and use oxygen that people can realistically expect as a result of training is about
A.
5–10%.
B.
15–30%.
C.
40–50%.
D.
60–70%.


27.
Longlasting commitment and attainment of physical fitness goals are most successful when the goals
A.
require considerable material rewards.
B.
are linked to your peers' perceptions.
C.
are clear and important to you personally.
D.
focus on the longterm rather than the shortterm.


28.
Healthy body composition is developed best by the combination of
A.
weight training, stretching, and endurance exercise.
B.
sensible diet, resistance training, and endurance exercise.
C.
sensible diet, resistance training, and stretching.
D.
sensible diet, stretching, and endurance exercise.


29.
Personal safety while exercising can be enhanced by
A.
training alone.
B.
wearing shoes or clothing with reflective tape.
C.
demanding your rightofway regardless of others.
D.
training in isolated areas.


30.
About 50% of Americans engage regularly in moderate intensity physical activity.
A. True
B. False


31.
Low-intensity physical activity is likely to improve health but not fitness.
A. True
B. False


32.
Coordination is considered a health-related component of fitness.
A. True
B. False


33.
Cardiorespiratory endurance exercise should take place in sessions or bouts of at least 20 minutes in order to build fitness.
A. True
B. False


34.
Swimming and jogging are examples of activities that develop cardiorespiratory endurance.
A. True
B. False


35.
Training lightly during one workout and intensely during the next workout is an example of periodization.
A. True
B. False


36.
List and define the components of health-related physical fitness. For each, briefly describe how an individual could increase her or his level of fitness in that component. Also list at least one wellness benefit associated with development of each of the components.

Answer:


37.
List and describe each dimension of progressive overload. For each, give an example of how to apply that component to one of the components of health-related fitness.

Answer:


38.
Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of the cardiorespiratory system?
A.
to transport oxygen
B.
to pick up waste products
C.
to transport nutrients
D.
to produce ATP


39.
The two upper chambers of the heart in which blood collects before passing to the lower chambers are called
A.
ventricles.
B.
atria.
C.
septum.
D.
valves.


40.
Alveoli serve what function in the lungs?
A.
They ensure that air flows completely through the lungs.
B.
They prevent dust and pollens from entering the lungs.
C.
They help to expand and contract the lungs.
D.
They allow for the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen.


41.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is defined as
A.
the building block of proteins.
B.
the stored form of glucose.
C.
the stored form of fats.
D.
the basic form of energy used by cells.


42.
Fat is utilized as a fuel more efficiently during periods of
A.
prolonged exercise.
B.
moderately intense exercise.
C.
rest.
D.
shortterm intense activity.


43.
Free radicals are
A.
complex carbohydrates that fuel muscle activity.
B.
metabolic by-products that cause fatigue.
C.
reactive compounds that can cause cellular damage.
D.
cellular structures that contain enzymes.


44.
Exercise may reduce the risk of colon cancer through all of the following means EXCEPT
A.
reducing blood fats.
B.
speeding the movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract.
C.
enhancing immune function.
D.
increasing concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine.


45.
Immediate effects of cardiorespiratory exercise include
A.
decreased blood flow to the brain.
B.
decreased stroke volume.
C.
decreased blood flow to the kidneys.
D.
decreased oxygen transport.


46.
To obtain a good endurance workout and boost cardiorespiratory fitness during activities such as walking or swimming slowly, the heart rate should be kept in the target zone for
A.
10 minutes, five times per week.
B.
15 minutes, four times per week.
C.
30 minutes, three times per week.
D.
45 minutes, three times per week.


47.
Which of the following statements about a warm-up session is FALSE?
A.
It can enhance performance and reduce injuries.
B.
Warm-up activities are usually of high intensity.
C.
Muscles work better when their temperature is slightly above resting level.
D.
It helps spread synovial fluid throughout joints and protect joint surfaces.


48.
The failure of the brain's temperature regulatory center is involved in which of the following?
A.
dehydration
B.
heat cramps
C.
heat exhaustion
D.
heat stroke


49.
All of the following are treated with R-I-C-E (rest, ice, compression, elevation) EXCEPT
A.
blister
B.
joint sprain
C.
muscle strain
D.
tendonitis


50.
Blood pressure is greater during systole than during diastole.
A. True
B. False


51.
The nonoxidative (anaerobic) energy system is used for highintensity activities lasting about 10 seconds to 2 minutes.
A. True
B. False


52.
Blood flow to the skin decreases during exercise.
A. True
B. False


53.
Regular endurance exercise helps protect against the development of the most common type of diabetes.
A. True
B. False


54.
Target heart rate zone is from 50% to 70% of maximum heart rate.
A. True
B. False


55.
For exercise sessions lasting more than 90 minutes, a sports drink is recommended as a fluid replacement.
A. True
B. False


56.
For exercise clothing, cotton is the best fabric for those who sweat very heavily during exercise.
A. True
B. False


57.
Describe how blood is pumped and circulated through the body. Include the roles of the four chambers of the heart, the major blood vessels leading in and out of the heart and lungs, and the arteries, capillaries, and veins found in the body.

Answer:


58.
Describe at least five benefits of cardiorespiratory endurance exercise.

Answer:


59.
List at least three benefits of warming up before exercise and cooling down after exercise. Give at least two examples each of appropriate warm-up and cool-down activities.

Answer:


60.
Imagine that you are shopping for a piece of home exercise equipment. List at least five factors you should consider before making a purchase.

Answer:


61.
Muscular strength is best defined as
A.
the maximum amount of force a muscle can produce in a single maximal effort.
B.
the maximum amount of force a muscle can produce in 10 repetitions.
C.
the ability to exert a submaximal force repeatedly over time.
D.
the ability to exert force rapidly.


62.
Hypertrophy is defined as
A.
an increase in muscle fiber size.
B.
a decrease in muscle fiber size.
C.
an increase in muscle fiber number.
D.
a decrease in muscle fiber number.


63.
A motor unit contains
A.
a tendon and a muscle fiber.
B.
fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers.
C.
a motor nerve connected to muscle fibers.
D.
a motor nerve connected to a tendon.


64.
Metabolic rate increases if
A.
fat mass increases.
B.
fat mass decreases.
C.
muscle mass decreases.
D.
muscle mass increases.


65.
Strength training helps in the prevention and management of chronic disease by
A.
increasing systolic blood pressure.
B.
increasing LDL cholesterol.
C.
improving glucose metabolism.
D.
decreasing bone density.


66.
Muscular force exerted as a muscle shortens is best classified as
A.
eccentric.
B.
isometric.
C.
concentric.
D.
isotonic.


67.
Isokinetic exercise is best described as applying force
A.
with movement.
B.
at a constant speed.
C.
without movement.
D.
while a muscle is lengthening.


68.
Training intensity for weight training is determined by
A.
number of sets.
B.
amount of weight lifted.
C.
number of repetitions.
D.
amount of time lifting.


69.
In weight training, a set is a
A.
group of exercises.
B.
group of repetitions.
C.
group of similar exercises.
D.
single muscle contraction.


70.
A cool-down period after a weight training workout should include
A.
repeated bouts of sprinting.
B.
high-intensity plyometrics.
C.
5–10 minutes of relaxation and stretching.
D.
30 minutes of aerobic activity.


71.
All of the following are recommended guidelines when working with free weights EXCEPT
A.
bounce the barbell against your body so you can lift greater resistance.
B.
use a spotter for exercises in which the bar crosses the face or head.
C.
lift most of the weight with your legs.
D.
keep the weight close to your body.


72.
Which of the following performance-enhancing substances has no negative side effects?
A.
anabolic steroids
B.
adrenal androgens
C.
erythropoietin
D.
none of the above


73.
Which of the following is NOT recommended if you have reached a plateau with your weight training program?
A.
Change the type of exercises.
B.
Increase the training frequency.
C.
Vary the number of sets and reps.
D.
Vary the load and number of repetitions.


74.
A person recruits more motor units when picking up a small weight than when picking up a large weight.
A. True
B. False


75.
Strength training can improve glucose metabolism and reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
A. True
B. False


76.
To build strength using isometric exercises, it is best to hold the contraction maximally for at least 30 seconds.
A. True
B. False


77.
For a strength training program to develop general fitness, it is best to choose resistance of about 90% of 1 RM.
A. True
B. False


78.
If you can do 14 repetitions of an exercise with good form using 10 pounds of resistance, you should increase the resistance to about 11–12 pounds.
A. True
B. False


79.
Ephedra is a safe stimulant available as an over-the-counter supplement.
A. True
B. False


80.
Even after stopping a weight training program, muscle will not turn to fat.
A. True
B. False


81.
Performing a series of different calisthenic exercises consecutively is one method of circuit training.
A. True
B. False


82.
Name the two major types of muscle fibers, and describe the key differences between them. Give at least two examples of activities that would use primarily that type of fiber.

Answer:


83.
Explain the difference between static and dynamic exercise and between concentric and eccentric muscle contractions. Give at least two examples of each.

Answer:


84.
Apply the FITT principle to strength training. Describe a complete weight training program for general fitness according to the FITT guidelines.

Answer:


85.
List and describe at least ten guidelines for safe strength training. Include at least three guidelines for spotting during free weight exercises on your list.

Answer:


86.
Dynamic flexibility would affect your ability to do all of the following EXCEPT
A.
swing a golf club.
B.
perform a split.
C.
pitch a softball.
D.
swim the crawl stroke.


87.
The yellow fibers that make connective tissue flexible are
A.
collagen.
B.
elastin.
C.
titin.
D.
stretch receptors.


88.
Which of the following is NOT a potential benefit of flexibility?
A.
relief of aches and pains
B.
maintenance of good posture
C.
increased relaxation
D.
improved energy production


89.
To improve flexibility, stretching exercises should be repeated _____ times.
A.
3
B.
at least 4
C.
7–9
D.
at least 10


90.
Which of the following is NOT one of the common stretching techniques?
A.
active stretching
B.
isotonic stretching
C.
static stretching
D.
proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation


91.
All of the following are functions of the spine EXCEPT
A.
structural support for the lower body.
B.
attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
C.
protection of the spinal cord.
D.
transmission of body weight to the lower body.


92.
Pain from a “slipped disk” is most likely the result of
A.
pressure on a nerve root.
B.
damage to the vertebral body.
C.
pressure on the spinal cord.
D.
damage to the vertebral arch.


93.
Flexibility is not a reversible fitness component.
A. True
B. False


94.
Knee pain may be caused by poor thigh flexibility.
A. True
B. False


95.
A stretch should be held in position for a minimum of 45 seconds.
A. True
B. False


96.
The most common cause of low-back pain is sudden traumatic injury.
A. True
B. False


97.
Smoking is a risk factor for low-back pain.
A. True
B. False


98.
Exercise can help prevent and manage low-back pain.
A. True
B. False


99.
Explain how stretching affects muscles to improve flexibility.

Answer:


100.
Apply the FITT principle to flexibility training. Describe a complete stretching program for general fitness according to the FITT guidelines.

Answer:


101.
Describe the underlying causes of low-back pain. Discuss at least five risk factors.

Answer:


102.
The key to healthy body composition is to
A.
emphasize short-term weight loss.
B.
focus on lifestyle changes.
C.
emphasize diet only.
D.
set unrealistic goals.


103.
Height and weight tables rely on
A.
insurance company mortality statistics.
B.
national fitness data.
C.
individual fitness assessments.
D.
body density information.


104.
In the past decade, the daily caloric intake has risen by about
A.
50–100 calories.
B.
100–300 calories.
C.
500 calories.
D.
1000 calories.


105.
All of the following are factors in the development of diabetes EXCEPT
A.
age.
B.
obesity.
C.
a diet high in monounsaturated fat.
D.
physical inactivity.


106.
A man may experience muscle wasting and fatigue if his percentage of body fat is less than
A.
3–5%.
B.
8–12%.
C.
15–20%.
D.
20–25%.


107.
A person with a body mass index of 26.5 is classified as
A.
underweight.
B.
normal weight.
C.
overweight.
D.
obese.


108.
Hydrostatic weighing is used to predict percent body fat based on
A.
body mass index.
B.
body density.
C.
fat weight.
D.
height and total body weight.


109.
In what primary way does weight training affect body composition?
A.
Weight training improves body composition by increasing muscle mass.
B.
Weight training improves body composition by creating a large negative calorie balance.
C.
Weight training improves body composition by reducing the amount of fat at specific body sites (spot reducing).
D.
Weight training does not change body composition.


110.
Two people of the same body weight may have different values of percent body fat.
A. True
B. False


111.
In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin.
A. True
B. False


112.
Heredity influences one's ability to change body composition through lifestyle measures.
A. True
B. False


113.
Underwater weighing is used as the standard for other indirect measures of body fat.
A. True
B. False


114.
Liposuction typically involves removal of about 10 pounds of fat tissue at a time.
A. True
B. False


115.
Describe the health effects of too much and too little body fat.

Answer:


116.
Define body mass index and explain how it is calculated. List the NIH classifications and cutoffs for BMI.

Answer:


117.
How does the distribution of body fat influence health? How is body fat distribution assessed?

Answer:


Sample Exam MVS240 Chapters 1-6 Topics




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