ANNOTATED INDEX OF SELECTED DOCUMENTS AND
CORRESPONDENCE FROM THE COLLECTION OF JAMES V. NEEL'S
PAPERS IN THE ARCHIVE OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY"
Selected and compiled by Terence Turner and John Stevens
Cornell University, Feb 2001
PART I. BASE LIST OF CORRESPONDENCE AND DOCUMENTS Note: The papers listed in this catalogue were selected by Stevens and Turner from the much more extensive collection of Neel papers at the APS Archive in December 2000. The papers indexed in Part I are listed in the order in which they were found and noted by Stevens and Turner at the APS Archive, and has no other thematic principle. Each document is numbered according to its position in this list. See Part II for a chronologically ordered list of the same materials. Part III is an annotated index of entries in Neel's Field Journal. Part IV is a topically indexed selection of the same documents. All papers retain their numbers from the list in Part I in the subsequent lists. 1) CORRESPONDENCE [COR]: COR1: Letter to Neel from Dr. Joseph E. Jackson, Director of Biological Clinical Research, Dow Chemical Company, dated 4 November 1970 (3 pages). A discussion of "a possible trivalent live virus vaccine field trial in the Yanomama." He goes over a number of technical points, mostly focused on questions of drawing and transporting bloods at the proper times. COR2: Letter to Neel from Dr. Joseph E. Jackson, dated 23 December 1970, cc to Chagnon (4 pages). Jackson states that he is sending them a first draft protocol (see DOC2) for the trivalent live virus vaccine study. He discusses a number of issues in relation to that, such as observing and recording reactions. He presents some of Dow's reservations about the project in the second half of the letter, such as whether the Yanomama selected would be appropriate subjects who were not already measles-immune (he mostly seems concerned about ability to control test conditions). COR3: Letter to Jackson from Neel, dated 30 December 1970 (1 page). This is Neel¡s tentative rejection of the Dow project. He gives several reasons why he thinks the team may not be able to do the work, but in the end it comes down to his own crowded research schedule. COR4: Letter to Neel from Dr. J.E. Jackson, dated 6 January 1971 (1 page). This letter basically terminates the proposed project and gives some reasons for that termination. COR5: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, date 11 December 1967 (1 page). This is the letter where Neel requests Layrisse to obtain the Venezuelan government's permission to vaccinate the Yanomami. As he puts it, "[t]here seems to be a raging measles epidemic amongst the YanomamŒ on the Brazilian side." COR6: Letter "To Whom It May Concern" from Centerwall, dated 9 January 1968 (1 page). In this letter Centerwall describes a protocol for immunizing the Yanomami. At the bottom is a handwritten asking that "[I]f possible, compare the reactions of the two [makes? Word illegible TT] of vaccine (canine kidney + egg culture)." COR7: Letter to Dr. Donald Coohan, Chief, Division of Communicable Diseases, Michigan Department of Health, from Neel, dated 11 August 1975 (1 page). In it Neel talks about the use of vaccines as "the entr‚e. . . to a large group of somewhat (justifiably) suspicious and reluctant subjects." COR8: Letter to Dr. S.J. Musser, Director of Research, Philips Roxane Inc., from Neel, dated 26 June 1970 (1 page). In it Neel points out an acknowledgment from an article. COR9: Letter to Dr. R. M. Hodges, Director, Ann Arbor Research, Parke Davis and Company Research Laboratories, from Neel, dated 26 June 1970 (1 page). In it Neel points out an acknowledgment from an article. COR10: Letter to Dr. Kenneth J. Wilcox, Jr., Associate Director for Laboratory Services, Michigan Department of Public Health., from Neel, dated 26 June 1970 (1 page). In this letter Neel thanks Wilcox¡s office for some gamma-globulin. "Enclosed please find a small piece of evidence, as to how the gamma-globulin was put to work." COR 11: Letter to Dr. Kenneth J. Wilcox, Jr., Associate Director for Laboratory Services, Michigan Department of Public Health., from Neel, dated 26 April 1968 (1 page). In it Neel acknowledges safe receipt of the immune serum globulinŒ and states that "[q]uite aside from the usual humanitarian considerations, serious decimation of the group would mean the loss of a tremendous resource for studies of human biology." COR12: Letter to Neel from Dr. S.J. Musser, dated 19 April 1968 (1 page). In it Musser states he has shipped the 2K doses of vaccine to Neel¡s home in Ann Arbor, and requests an acknowledgment and a statement on its use, since it is "technically saleable product." He does not specify what type of vaccine it is. COR13: Letter to Dr. S.J. Musser from Neel, dated 26 April 1968 (1 page). In it Neel acknowledges receipt of 2000 doses of vaccine, explains its usage (in language very similar to COR11) and states that the vaccine is on its way to Venezuela. (QUESTION for later examination: why were only 1000 doses sent instead of the whole 2000?) COR14: Letter to Dr. Charles Patton from Neel, dated 5 July 1968 (1 page). One particular remark stands out: he stated that "[t]he mortality in Brazil is lower than the mortality in Venezuela." COR15: Letter to Dr. Francis L. Black from Centerwall, dated 10 January 1968 (1 page). In it he talks about the flyers that came with the vaccine and globulin and how they will adjust dosages, and also who they will not vaccinate. He also references the "half village" immunization. COR16: Letter to Roche from Neel, dated 4 April 1968 (1 page). In it he mentions talking about the measles at a PAHO meeting, and also asks if Roche would "drop me a few lines characterizing your clinical impression of the young Brazilian whom you saw with measles." COR17: Letter to Neel from Will and Mary Roundy, dated 7 May 1968 (1 page). In this short letter the Roundys tell Neel that they noted the following mortality from the measles epidemics: 1) at Shanamana, 3 adults and 10 children died, including an infant given globulin. 2) they state that measles are running rampant at Casharawa teri and Yabitawa teri. 18 have died and the rest are very sick.Œ 3) They state that another group acquired measles (Shibariwa; teri?) and 38 who came out all got well, but some who stayed at home died (no figure). COR18: Letter to Layrisse from Chagnon, dated 18 September 1967 (2 pages) It seems to be a wrap-up letter of some sort. COR19: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 29 September 1967 (1 page). In it Neel discusses the need for a statement from IVIC for visas, and discusses who will be coming on the expedition. COR20: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 12 December 1967 (2 pages, plus a short 1 page version of the IPB submission). Here Layrisse discusses several issues, including a tentative draft of the joining studies between your Department and IVIC.Œ This draft is listed in this Index as DOC8. COR21: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 19 December 1967 (1 page). In it Layrisse briefly discusses the IBP draft (DOC8) and talks about genetic studies. COR22: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 21 December 1967 (1 page). Neel discusses rewriting the IBP prospectus and discusses vaccinations given that "there is a bad measles outbreak on the Brazilian side." COR23: Letter to Dr. Helen L. Casey, Chief, Viral Immunoserology Unit, National Communicable Disease Center, from Neel dated 22 July 1968 (2 pages). Neel discusses a number of issues centered on the article he writing; one thing he mentions in particular is the need to "collect more data from the field on mortality." COR24: Letter to Dr. Helen L. Casey from Neel, dated 15 April 1968 (1 page). Neel discusses the expedition¡s fruits, and in particular focuses on the research opportunities around the measles epidemic, particularly at Ocamo where an earlier expedition had found measles antibodies. COR25: Letter to Neel from Casey, dated 8 January 1968 (1 page). Casey discusses a test she ran for measles antibodies (the results are listed in this Index as DOC11). COR26: Letter to Casey from Neel, dated 30 August 1967 (1 page). Neel discusses the possibilities getting the disease pictureŒ of the Yanomami, and talks about trying to set up a date to come to the CDC and discuss a study. (QUESTION: Is this the "conference" that Lindee talks about which she says was to learn about immunization with Edmonston B?). COR27: Letter to Dr. Libero Ajello, Chief of Mycology and Parasitology Section, CDC, from Neel dated 6 March 1967 (2 pages). Neel talks about specimens collected in the 1967 expedition and again discusses his desire to "reconstruct a pre- contact disease picture in the American Indian." He also mentions collaborating with IVIC. COR28: Letter to Dr. Joseph H. Schubert, Bacterial Serology Unit, NCDC, from Neel, dated 30 August 1967 (1 page). More discussion of coming to the CDC to talk about disease studies and again mentions wanting to look at the impact of pre- and post- contact disease on the Indians, especially morbidity-mortality rates. COR 29: Letter to Dr. Robert A. Hingson, Department of Anesthesiology, Western Reserve University, from Neel, dated 15 September 1967 (1 page). Neel requests help for immunizing against measles, smallpox, pertussis and tuberculosis. The article is indexed here as DOC12. COR30: Letter to Neel from Dr. Tulio Arends, dated 8 June 1967 (1 page). Arends discusses a number of tests he is conducting for Neel, and at one point mentions "'operation melt-down' in relation to the study of abnormal transferrins." COR31: Letter to Arends from Neel, dated 26 June 1967. Neel mentions "Operation Melt-down" as a "currentŒ activity" for Brazilian YanomamaŒ and has to do with blood processing. COR32: Letter to Arends from Neel, dated 26 July 1967. COR33: Letter to Mr. Rodney Lewis, Cruzada de Evangelizacao Mundial, from Neel, dated 16 September 1968. In it he again mentions wanting to understand the disease picture among the Yanomama,Œ with the objective of advising on improving their health. "[T]his policy paid off handsomely in connection with the measles epidemic," he says. COR34: Letter to Reverend Macon C. Hare, New Tribes Mission, from Neel, dated 20 September 1966. In it Neel discusses the possibility of working in Brazil. COR35: Letter to Neel from W. Neill Hawkins, CEM, dated 28 January 1967 (1 page). In it Hawkins asks for advice on recent outbreaks of what he thinks is malaria. COR36: Letter to Neel from Dan Shaylor, dated 10 June 1966 (1 page). Updates Neel on the movement of several groups of Indians. COR37: Letter to Mr. Robert Shaylor from Neel, dated 21 November 1967 (2 pages). Neel discusses the expedition's plans and at the end of the letter discusses trying to immunize Indians during the expedition. COR38: Handwritten letter to Neel from Dan Shaylor, dated 11 December 1967 (1 page). Shaylor discusses his plans regarding the 1968 expedition, and mentins in a P.S. that "[t]here are reports of measles coming from Brazil down the Orinoco." COR39: Letter to Neel from Robert Shaylor, dated November 28, 1967. He talks about the coming of measles above Mavaca. COR40: Letter to Dan Shaylor, apparently from Chagnon, but unsigned (his name is in brackets at the top of the first page, handwritten), dated 20 December 1967 (2 pages). He discusses a number of aspects of the expedition, including plans to inoculate Indians from measles. He states that they "are confident that it will work without producing undesirable side effects." COR41: Letter to Bob Shaylor from Neel, dated 22 April 1968 (2 pages). He discusses further measles problems and asks for data on temperature response. He also states that the epidemic "would undoubtedly been worse without the vaccine we were able to get in." and asks for more information on mortality. COR42: Letter to Neel from the Paul Dye family, dated 13 March 1968, handwritten (2 pages). The letter discusses a new measles outbreak at "Mono teri." They state that "many have died since you¡ve gone, in Sahanmana also." COR43: Letter to Bob Shaylor from Neel, dated 10 June 1968 (1 page). He mentions the vaccine exchange that took place, and again notes that he feels the expedition's work lessened the impact of the epidemic. COR44: Letter to Kathy Earle, New Tribes Mission, from Chagnon, dated 24 September 1968 (1 page). Discusses planning for the 1969 expedition. COR45: Letter to Neel from Bob Shaylor, dated 20 May 1968 (2 pages). States that about 4000 doses of vaccine have been received and that "4 teams are out vaccinating." COR46: Letter to Neel from Dr. Charles Patton, dated 20 June 1968 (2 long pages). Discusses vaccination efforts in Brazil. COR47: Letter to Neel from Dr. R.R. Widmann, Director of Clinical Research, Cyanamid International, dated 19 December 1967. Dr. Widmann tells Neel that his corporation is donating 1000 doses of measles vaccine and then gives him instructions on how to store it and keep it active. COR48: Letter to Dr. Fernano C. Ottati, Director of Medical Research and Development, Cyanamid International, from Dr. M. Martina da Silva, Chief, Office of Research Coordination, PAHO, dated 19 December 1967. The letter is a request for 1000 doses of measles vaccine for Neel¡s expedition. COR49: Letter to Neel from Dr. Kenneth R. Wilcox. Jr., Associate Director for Laboratory Services, Michigan Department of Public Health, dated 19 April 1968 (1 page). It attempts to explain the contraindication warning on an unnamed batch of measles vaccine. COR50: Letter to Roche from Neel, dated 22 April 1968 (1 page). Neel tells Roche that more vaccine and globulin are on their way. COR51: Letter to Neel from Chagnon, handwritten and dated 11 March 1968 (1 page). Chagnon assures Neel that more bloods are coming and talks a bit about filming The Feast. COR52: Letter to Dr. da Silva from Neel, dated 27 December 1967 (1 page). Requests PAHO papers for the expedition¡s equipment. COR53: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 30 August 1967 (3 pages). One of Neel's first articulations of the expedition plan. COR54: Letter to Dan Shaylor from Neel, dated 19 September 1967 (2 pages). More discussion of his research plan. COR55: Letter to Neel from Dan Shaylor, handwritten and dated 13 October 1967 (3 pages). Response to Neel's 19 September letter (COR54). Discusses a number of recent developments in the field (such as the death of the MAF pilots). COR56: Letter to Bob Shaylor from Chagnon, dated 19 September 1967 (2 pages). Chagnon reiterates the expedition plan Neel sent earlier and asks them to aid a French anthropology student. COR57: Letter to Neill Hawkins from Neel, date 10 March 1967 (4 pages). A lengthy discussion of the disease picture of the Yanomami. COR58: Letter to the US Embassy in Caracas from John R. Trotter, US Atomic Energy Commission, dated 16 November 1967 (1 page). A request for the Embassy to aid in the transport of Neel's samples. COR59: Letter to Dr. Joseph E. Jackson from Neel, dated 30 December 1970 (1 page). Neel declines to participate in the triple vaccine study (this appears to be the same document as COR3). COR60: Letter to Neel from Jackson, dated 6 January 1971 (1 page). In it Jackson gives his own views on the project (this appears to be the same document as COR4). COR61: Letter to Mr. And Mrs. Will Roundy from Neel, dated 18 September 1968 (1 page). Thanks them for their August letter and talks about future plans. COR62: Letter to Neel from the Roundys, dated December 1968. A handwritten footnote says that measles have "reached the new location near the Brasilian border." COR63: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 5 January 1967 (1 page). Discusses antibody testing. COR64: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 10 April 1967 (1 page). Talks about impending French expedition. COR65: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 24 April 1967(1 page). Some discussion of research plans. COR66: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 16 February 1967 (2 pages). Apparently a response to an article Neel sent him for comment. COR67: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 2 March 1967 (2 pages). Continues discussion of article and talks a little about next expedition. COR68: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 13 March 1967 (1 page). Talks about dissuading Levi-Strauss from working with the Yanomami to prevent overlap. COR69: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 22 March 1967 (1 page). Discusses Layrisse¡s attendance at a WHO conference. COR70: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 10 March 1967 (1 page). Mostly discussion about the 1967 expedition and some comments on Brewer. COR71: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 17 March 1967 (1 page). A short note on some bloods samples from Chagnon. COR72: Letter to Neel from Zulay Layrisse, dated 16 March 1967 (1 page). It is a duplicate of the above letter, with a P.S. that there was an error in the letter dated the 17th(???). COR73: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 7 June 1967 (1 page). Discussion of samples from the 1967 expedition and possible publication. COR74: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 8 June 1967 (1 page). Quick note regarding Neel¡s letter to 8 May 1967. COR75: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 8 May 1967 (1 page). Discussion of how their "study of primitive people has just been designated as a part of IBP." COR76: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 21 August 1967 (1 page). Informs Neel that he is now chair of the Venezuelan Committee for the IPB regarding adaptability of humans.Œ COR77: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 30 August 1967 (3 pages). Lays out for Layrisse his tentative plans for the 1968 expedition, and also discusses possible importance of IBP for "the study of the vanishing primitive peoples." COR78: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 15 November 1967 (3 pages). More discussion of his plans for the 1968 expedition. COR79: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 21 October 1967 (2 pages). Discusses admixture and gene flow. COR80: Letter to Neel and Dr. Henry Gershowitz from Layrisse, dated 24 October 1967 (2 pages). Discussion of Gershowitz¡s report on Rh and DCE results (with enclosed table). COR81: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 5 December 1967 (1 page). Discusses the possible re-designation of the Yanomami project by IBP and mentions an AEC grant in relation to their work. COR82: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 2 February 1968 (1 page). Requests blood samples and expresses gladness that "the minor problems faced" by the expedition "have been solved properly." COR83: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated "26 de Enero 1968" (1 page). Apologizes for vacutainer problems and comments that "blood arrived in excellent condition" to his lab. COR84: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated "5 de Enero 1968" (1 page). Letter about adjusting the IBP proposal. COR85: Letter to Layrisse from Neel dated 2 April 1968 (1 page). Follow-up on expedition, mostly about specimens and Ward leaving some items behind. COR86: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 10 October 1967 (1 page). Talking about information of gene frequencies in Indians. COR87: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 7 September 1967 (1 page). Asking about blood group studies on American Indians. COR88: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 18 April 1968 (2 pages). Most of the letter is about resolving discrepancies in blood typing and Rh types. Neel also mentions that he is working hard on the renewal grant from the AEC. COR89: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 25 April 1968 (2 pages, plus attachment entered as DOC23). This is a discussion of the blood tests from the 1968 expedition. COR90: Letter to Layrisse from Ruth Sanger of the Lister Institute, dated 29 February 1968 (1 page). Going over some tests her group conducted from one family¡s bloods. COR91: Letter to Chagnon from Neel, dated 2 March 1967 (1 page). Discusses some material shipped down to Chagnon. At the end is the cryptic sentence "No. 1 priority to l'affaire Strauss." COR92: A handwritten note with Chagnon's name at the top (1 page). It states that a shipment left Miami on 17 February and gives details for receiving the shipment. COR93: Letter to Chagnon (c/o Layrisse) from Neel, dated 14 March 1967 (2 pages). Discusses the possibility of studying the untouchedŒ Shukuma, and details a plan to dissuade Levi-Strauss from studying the Yanomami. COR94: Letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 1 March 1967. Lots of small details about Chagnon's work and travails. COR95: Letter to Clifford Evans, Museum of Natural History, from Chagnon, dated 19 September 1967 (1 page). Talking about donating Yanomami material culture items, and some professional small talk. COR96: Letter to Layrisse from Neel ,dated 9 October 1967 (1 page). Talks about expedition preparations, and a plan to invite Yanomami to Santa Maria for their research. COR97: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 28 September 1967 (2 pages). Discussion of assorted details on the expedition (responded to by Neel in COR96). COR98: Letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 11 March 1968 (1 page). Post-expedition trivia (probably a duplicate of COR51). COR99: Letter to Chagnon from Neel, dated 13 May 1968 (1 page). Details Chagnon's food expenses. COR100: Letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 18 May 1969 (1 page). Talks about iodine experiments and a discussion Chagnon had with Jean-Paul Dumont about taking blood samples from the Panare (1 page). COR101: Letter to Chagnon from Neel, dated 23 May 1969 (2 pages). Talks about iodine experiments and further blood studies, and references the possibility of himself and Chagnon going to Ohio State. COR102: Letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 15 May 1969 (1 page). A number of small issues discussed, such as chances in Indian policy and IVIC staff, a story about a mad Frenchman,Œ and some other minutia. COR103: Letter to Chagnon from Neel, dated 15 May 1970 (2 pages). A number of small details about ongoing and future work. COR104: Letter to Chagnon from Neel, dated 1 May 1970 (1 page). More details on future work and personnel. COR105: Letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 22 April AND 24 April 1970 (6 pages). Full of details on recent fieldwork and assorted issues around research, including relations with other researchers. COR106: hand-written letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 1 May 1970 (2 pages). Discusses research and prospects from next expedition. COR107: hand-written letter to Neel ("Jim") from Chagnon, dated 18 May 1970 (1 page). Some suggestions on scheduling the research plan, with a hand-drawn map at the bottom. COR108: A handwritten note or letter that is partially obscured, from Chagnon, date unclear, but in provenance to COR107 and COR109 (1 page). Talking about Neel coming to Ocamo. COR109: Letter to Neel and Layrisse from Chagnon, dated 5 June AND 6 June 1970 (6 pages). Another detail-filled letter on fieldwork and assorted other issues. COR110: Letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 3 January 1971 (1 page). Written in-flight,Œ notes on the schedule and personnel for a subsequent research expedition. COR111: A handwritten letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 6 June 1971 (2 pages). More field details. COR112: Letter to Chagnon from Neel, dated 30 March 1972 (1 page). Discussion of good and bad blood samples. COR113: Letter to Chagnon from Neel, dated 21 March 1972 (2 pages). Discussion of research relations and field matters. COR114: Handwritten letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 17 March 1972 (1 page). More miscellany about field matters. COR115: Letter to Neel, Ward, M. Levin, and K Weiss from Chagnon, dated 23 May 1972 (1 page, apparently, no signature at the end). An overview and assessment of ongoing research. COR116: Letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 17 April 1972 (9 pages). An extensive account of Chagnon's work and frustrations in the field, lots of interesting details. COR117: Handwritten letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 26 February 1972 (2 pages). More on his plans for research. COR118: Handwritten letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 7 March 1972 (1 page). This is an air-letter that may be the enclosure to DOC29, discussing details of current fieldwork. COR119: Letter to Neel from Mary G. Lauer, Conference Coordinator, NIH, dated 18 May 1970 (1 page). Confirms Neel¡s reimbursement for the conference referenced in DOC32. Included with this letter was DOC33. COR120: Letter to Casey from Neel, dated 1 August 1968 (1 page). Informs her that more specimens are coming and that "I think we have a really interesting little paper going." COR121: Letter to Neel from Donna T. Warfield, Viral Immunoserology Unit, National Communicable Disease Center, dated 23 June 1968 (1 page). This is a list of CF and HI test results. COR122: Letter to Neel from Casey, dated 22 April 1968 (1 page). Informing Neel that he can send "the ten plasma samples" although she may not get to do all the tests he wants. COR123: Letter to Casey from Carol Nevins, dated 10 January 1968 (1 page). She informs Casey that Neel has left and that her correspondence will be sent to him. COR124: Letter to Neel from Casey, dated 7 November 1967 (1 page). Discusses the anti-disease measures Nee must take before coming to the Virology Section of the NCDC. His arrival date is to be 19 November 1967. COR125: Letter to Casey from Neel, dated 23 October 1967 (1 page). Asking for permission for a quote from a manuscript. COR126: Letter to Neel from Casey, dated 27 September 1967 (1 page). Talks about some neutralization tests and Neel¡s plans to visit the NCDC (see DOC43). COR127: handwritten note (draft perhaps) to Casey from Neel, marked sent 12/15/67Œ (1 page). Discusses sera shipment details. COR128: Letter to Neel from Casey, dated 17 August 1967 (1 page). Discusses rubella HI results. COR129: Letter to Neel from Casey, dated 31 May 1967 (1 page). Discusses antibody titer tests against "several viral antigens." COR130: Letter to Casey from Neel, dated 7 June 1967 (1 page). Thanks her for a preliminary report on the Yanomama test results. COR131: Letter to Neel from Leo Kaufman, Chief, Fungus Immunology Unit, NCDC, dated 19 October 1967 (1 page). Notes that either 13 or 20 November is good for him and Ajello to meet with Neel. COR132: Letter to Kaufman from Neel, dated 16 March 1967 (1 page). Mentions sending soil specimens to Ajello. COR133: Letter to Neel from Kaufman, dated 9 March 1967 (1 page). Discusses data in a Neel letter of 6 March. COR134: Letter to Kaufman from Neel ,dated 6 March 1967 ( 1 page). Describes fungi among the Yanomama and other antibody tests in the future. COR135: Letter to Kaufman from Alice M. Gundersen, Departmental Secretary, dated 30 January 1967 ( 1 page). Informs Kaufman that Neel is in the field, and has soil collecting packages with him. COR136: Letter to Neel from Kaufman, dated 23 January 1967 (1 page). Discusses some clinical histories that Neel sent him. COR137: Letter to Kaufman from Neel, dated 21 December 1966 (1 page). Discusses a number of enclosures on various aspects of field tests. COR138: Letter to Dr. U. Pentti Kokko, Chief, Laboratory Branch, Communicable Disease Center, from Neel, dated 28 September 1966 (2 pages). An interesting letter that describes some of the motivations behind Neel's field methods on "significant disease pressures" and talks about his 1966 expedition. COR139: Letter to Neel from Kokko, dated 17 October 1966 (2 pages). Discusses which lab members can help Neel in different aspects of his work and discusses the work of the Sera Bank. COR140: Letter to Kokko from Neel, dated 28 October 1966 (2 pages). Discusses the options Kokko gave him and also discusses operation ¡melt-down¡Œ in more detail. COR141: Letter to Neel from Kokko, dated 16 November 1966 (1 page). Talks about testing and the possibility of storing Yanomama sera in the Serum Bank. COR142: Letter to Neel (Chagnon crossed out), from Merrill Seely, dated 17 February 1968. Notes data enclosed an thanks him for his help at Carona. COR143: Letter to Neel from John P. Fox, Assistant Managing Editor, AJE, dated 17 November 1969 (2 pages). Discusses the referees comments of DOC62, agreeing with the first referee but offering rewriting suggestions. His most trenchant criticism is that Neel needs to consider "the probable relation of age to the severity of clinical responses to both wild virus and vaccine virus infections." COR144: Letter to Fox from Neel, dated 5 December 1969 (2 pages). Neel discusses the changes he has made in response to Fox¡s and the referees' comments. COR145: Letter to Dr. N. Philip Ashmole, Associate Professor of Biology, Peabody Museum of Natural History from Neel, dated 15 December 1970 (1 page). Thanks Ashmole for his treatment of the Science article and gently critiques a point about brain size. COR146: Letter to Neel from Ashmole, dated 9 December 1970. Introduces a treatment he wrote of Neel's Science article that he wishes to publish (see DOC67). COR147: Letter to Neel from Evert C. Jones, U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service, dated 10 December, 1970 (2 pages). Discusses his impression of Neel¡s theory of intelligence in relation to his own, which believes that high intelligence has negative survival value for the species.Œ COR148: Letter to Jones from Neel, dated 18 December 1970 (1 page). Neel replies that "we are thinking along similar lines" to Jones, and that he would like to administer intelligence tests to "chiefs and non-chiefs" in tribal groups to see if there are "significant differences" but that it might not be possible. COR149: Letter to Neel from Dr. Francis L. Black, dated 13 August 1969 (1 page). Comments on Neel's measles article and discusses the question of "racial susceptibility to measles," which he states was an idea of Neel¡s that was misrepresented in a WHO Chronicle article. COR150: Letter to Black from Neel, dated 22 August 1969 (1 page) Neel thanks Black for his comments. COR151: Letter to Neel from Dr. Alfonso Paredes, Professor of Research Psychiatry, University of Oklahoma Medical Center, dated 28 April 1970 (1 page). Introduces a research proposal he wants Neel to examine. COR152: Letter to Paredes from Neel, dated 11 May 1970 (1 page). Comments on a draft research project Paredes sent him, noting the similarities and commenting on his own ideas of "acculturation" COR153: Letter to Mrs. Josephine K. Doherty, Associate Program Director for Environmental Biology, National Science Foundation from Richard Oliver, Staff Officer, National Research Council, dated 24 July 1970 (1 page). Discusses Paredes¡ research proposal and its administrative rejection by the IBP because "we have closed the US/IBP to additional IRPs." He requests that this not prejudice the project for the NSF. COR154: Letter to Paredes from Oliver, dated 24 July 1970 (2 pages). Explains the decision to reject Paredes¡ proposal. COR155: Letter to Neel from Rolf A. Geerdink, Stichting Academisch Ziekenhuis Utrecht, dated 11 July 1969 (2 pages). Discusses his own work with the Trio and Wayana Indians on blood typing and "skinfold thicknesses." COR156: Letter to Geerdink from Neel, dated 25 July 1969 (1 page). Minor comments on Geerdink's work, especially on dermatoglyphics, which is "quite similar to our findings in the Xavante." COR157: Letter to Neel from Geerdink, dated 26 June 1970 (1 page). Note of thanks and some personal updates. COR158: Letter to Geerdink from Carol Nevins, dated 8 July 1970 (1 page). Tells Geerdink that Neel will get his letter on his return from South America. COR159: Letter to Dr. S. William A. Gunn, WHO, from Neel, dated 27 May 1969 (1 page). Thanks him for information on the Haida. COR160: Letter to Neel from Gunn, dated 19 May 1969 (1 page). Discusses his work as doctor and ethnologist. COR161: Letter to Neel from Dr. Osvalds Mutchinick, Direccion Nacional de Genetica, Secretaria de Estado de Salud Publica, dated 15 April 1969 (2 pages). Asks for assistance with fingerprint study. Encloses a table of that study. COR162: Letter to Mutchinick from Neel, dated 8 May 1969 (1 page). Informs Mutchinick that he is still analyzing his own dermatoglyphic information. COR163 6 April 1969 Richard K. Nelson, Department of Anthropology, UCSB to Neel from(1 page). Discusses possibility of genetics studies with Athapaskan group. COR 164 1 April 1969 Neel to Nelson (2 pages). Discusses Nelson¡s NAS application and his own desire for more North American genetic information. COR165 3 January 1968 "To Whom It May Concern" from Frederick L. Stone, Ph.D., Director, National Institute of General Medical Sciences (1 page). Letter of Introduction for Neel and his expedition. COR166: Letter to the U.S. Embassy in Caracas from John R. Totter, Director, Division of Biology and Medicine, AEC, dated 16 November 1967 (1 page). Letter of Introduction asking that the Embassy helps with air transportation for Neel's samples. COR 167 1 August 1967 M.R. de Carlo, Assistant Executive Secretary, US-IBP, National Research Council, to Neel (1 page). Informs Neel that his proposal has been accepted by the program. COR168 3 January 1968 to Mauricio M. Bernbaum U.S. Embassy in Caracas from Stone (1 page). A letter of introduction emphasizing the importance of Neel's work and requesting assistance for this expedition. COR169 25 October 1967 James E. Lesch, Assistant to the Vice-President for Academic Affairs, to the Venezuelan Consulate (1 page). Verifies Neel's employment. COR170 2 November 1967 Letter to Consul General, Venezuelan Consulate from Neel (1 page, 3 copies). Certifies Ernie Migliazza's position as Research Assistant. COR171 8 November 1976 Neel to Dr. Richard "Ryk" Ward, Child Development and Retardation Center, University of Washington. Discusses a manuscript Ward sent him and suggests radical changes. COR172 11 January 1972 Neel to Ward, Spielman, Migliazza, Li, Sing, and Heuch (Memorandum, 1 page). Introduces DOC 89 to them. COR 173 10 March1964 Salzano to Neel "Turner has just spent a day with us..." COR 174 11 February 1966 Salzano(?) to Dr. Jerry D. Niswander, Human Genetics Branch, National Institute of Dental Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda 14, MD "There exist now at least two studies showing slight differences in reproductive performance between individuals with different cephalic indices (Bielicki, T. And Z. Welon. 1964. Homo, 15 (1): 22-30; Huizinga, J. And A. Slob. 1965. Koninkl. Nederl. Akademie van Wettenschappen--Amsterdam, Proceedings, Ser. C., 68 (4):297-301). I think it would be worth while to check this in our Xavante series..." COR 175 2 May 1966 Salzano to Niswander "Enclosed you will find three tables summarizing the calculations I have performed concerning the problem cephalic index: reproductive performance." Table I: classify by dolicho or mesocephalic in rela to average no. of liveborn children... Table 2 & 3: correlation coefficients between cephalic index values and average no. of liveborn children or the averge no. of surviving offspring do [not show?] any significant trend...Since the error of estimates based on such small samples is very large I doubt if more sophisticated analyses should be performed." COR 176 13 May 1966 Neel to Salzano "This matter of head form and reproductive performance is a problem. It was on my mind even before you brought the question up, but I had felt that we needed much more data before an analysis would be profitable...I would hope that some day we could combine your data on the Caingangs, our Xavante data, and the data we hope to get on the Cayapo, and the Yanomama, and then do an analysis of variance, partitioning by tribe and head form." COR 177 16 May 1966 Salzano to Maybury-Lewis "Last month [i.e., April] Terence Turner spent two very profitable days in Porto Alegre..." COR 178 15 June 1966 Salzano to Neel. mentions missionary Rev Neill Hawkins, cp 154, Boa Vista, Roraima. Mission has stations at Mucajjai, Rio Uricoera, Rio Auaris and Serra Surucucu. "Bartlett" (another Prot missionary among Brazilian Yanomami) mentioned in later letter COR 179 9 January 1968 Willard R. Centerwall to missionaries in Brazil to accompany 1000 doses of vaccine "In brief, it should be realized that the Edmonston strain of vaccine though immunologically effective is known to cause significantly high fevers and reactions in some persons. This is perhpas even more likely among measles-free peoples. The concomitant use of gamma globulin would help modify the reactions but in the absence of gammaglobulin, measles vaccination is still considered very much worth the risks providing certain precautions are taken, i.e.: (1) avoid vaccinating infants especially under 1 year of age, TB patients, acutely ill people, and persons who are old and/or infirm. (2) vaccinate only half of the able-bodied village ppopulation at one time so the unvaccinated individuals will be able to care for the needs of the vaccinated ones. (3) vaccinate populations which can be observed during the resting period (8-12 days post vaccination) so that any high feveers can be treated with aspirin and fluids and any bacterial comliccations treated with antibiotics or sulfa drugs... (4) alert the people being vaccinated that they may feel a bit ill from the vaccination but not as badly as the disease from which they are being protected. The vaccination causes what is essentially a mild case of measles which is not contagious..." COR 180 18 April 1968 Neel to Salzano "Our field work in Venezuela went very roughly indeed, thanks to an epidemic of measles. In the end we made out reasonably well, but it was probably the most strenuous two months of my entire life. The AEC grant that supports this work comes up for its three-year renewal this spring... COR 181 6 May1968 Marcel Roche to Neel. "The vaccines finally did arrive on Thursday [April] 25...In the meantime...the ministry [of health]? Had received a large batch of vaccines and let us have 800 of them (Sharp and Dohme). They apparently have conducted studies which have proved to their satisfacction that one third of the dose was just as effective as the whole dose and produced less reaction..We will pproceed with vaccination on that basis. As for the vaccines sent by you, I believe in view of the close expiration date, the best solution was to send them to the Ministry of Health, who agreed to use them promptly so that they are not wasted." COR 182 20 June1968 Charles N. Patton, M.D., to Neel (reporting on disposition of the 1,000 doses of vaccine sent by Neel. "Only about 500 could be used by our missionaries in this area. Tootobi and Mucaja¡ had recently suffered measles epidemics, so didn't need the vaccine. Uaic station istemporarily closed...That left only Auris and Surucuc£. In Auris about 150 doses were used...The missionary was left alone to care for all the reactions, and apparently was too overewhelmed to record the data as I had requested... She says, "All had fever, in 50% it was between 39 and 40 degrees C. 90% had conjunctivitis and cough. Some were confined to their hammock. 2% had an urticarial type eruption." An unsepcified number had measles-type eruptions--"in 4 children it covered the entire body." In Surucuc£ about 300 doses were applied, but nearly half of these were vaccine purchased by the mission (Lirurgen [a brand of Schwarz vaccine--T.T.]). After hearing of the strong reactions in Auris, they were afraid to vaccinate everybody at once with the Roxanne (Edmonston B: T.T.] vaccine. Yet they realized that if they did only part of the people, the rest would observe the reactions and as a result refuse to accept the vaccine at a later date. So they decided to vaccinate about half with the "non- reacting" Lirurgen... 2) DOCUMENTS [DOC]: DOC1: Field journal of Dr. Neel, pp. 36-134, covering dates 7 January to 8 March 1968. [Query: what happened to first 35 pages?] DOC2: "Statement of InvestigatorŒ" Draft Protocol Submission for a Study entitled "An Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Live, Attenuated Rubeola, Rubella and Mumps Vaccine Administered in Combination." The date on the Draft document is 12/22/70, and it is in provenance with COR2 and is also referred to in that letter. It appears that it was written by Dr. Jackson, but in COR2 he states that it was discussed with Neel prior to its drafting. The Statement has a cover sheet and two copies of the Draft Protocol, each five pages in length, for a total of 11 pages. DOC3: A handwritten page titled "Conference with Dr. Evehard and Oliver" apparently dated 3 January 1967 OR 3 June 1967 (difficult to differentiate) that has notes on bacterial diseases and a transportation schedule (1 page). Upon more careful examination, it may be a page of Neel's journal; there is a "33" in the upper left-hand corner, and the page resembles a journal page. DOC4: A receipt dated 18 April 1968 from Philips Roxane, Inc., that appears in provenance with COR12 (1 page). DOC5: A Western Union telegram dated 19 April 1968, from Roche to Neel (1 page). The message reads "DONATION ACCEPTABLE OUR GOVERNMENT." DOC6: Handwritten note with stamp that dates it "SENT Apr 15 1968 Human Genetics" (1 page) It is apparently from Neel to Roche asking for assurance that a vaccine donation is acceptable to the Venezuelan government. DOC7: A cable to Roche from Neel dated 23 April 1968 (1 page). In it Neel states that 1000 doses of vaccine and globulin are being shipped. DOC8: document titled "IBP Program" that appears to be a draft for a cooperative study between Neel's Department and IVIC, written by Layrisse (1 page). It is in provenance with COR20 and appears to have been enclosed with that letter. DOC9: ruled handwritten note titled "CABLE" to Layrisse from Neel, apparently sent 5 January 1968 (1 page). The note states the arrival of expedition members and supplies. DOC10: a small handwritten note that has no date and no letterhead, and appears to be signed by Layrisse (1 page). It merely says "[a]gree bring 2000 immunizing doses measles vaccine." DOC11: Enclosure from Casey to Neel dated 8 January 1968 (1 page). This is a list of measles HI antibody titers tested that is referenced in COR25. DOC12: Undated, unattributed article that is in provenance to COR29, and describes the work of the Brother's Brother Foundation. DOC13: Memo to Dr. R.L. Westerman, from M.T. Kenny, Assay Lab, Dow Chemical, dated 7 August 1970 (1 page). The memo discusses proper amounts of serum needed for various disease testings. DOC14: a handwritten table entitled "Ocamo Follow-up," undated (1 page). There are numbered individuals, dates with numbers beneath them, and at the bottom a notation: "Mix of previous measles, g.g. inj., vaccination, mild measles." DOC15: A photocopy of an envelope and an enclosed maps entitled "The Encroachment of Measles Upon the Yanomamo Territory of South America" (2 pages). The envelope has Centerwall's name written on it and is dated 31 July 1968. DOC16: A photocopy of several pamphlets on the use of two measles vaccines and globulin, all issued or revised in 1966 and 1967 (6 pages). These pamphlets discuss the uses and contraindications for the vaccines, which appear to include certain sorts of gamma globulin injections (?). DOC 17: article from Brown Gold, July 1968, 26(3) (1 page). It mentions the continuing penetration of measles into Guiaca territory in Venezuela. DOC18: article from Brown Gold, March 1968, 25(11) (1 page), entitled Measles Among the IndiansŒ by Mrs., Joe Dawson. Discusses some details of the measles epidemic. DOC19: A collection of articles (source unknown) by various missionaries about the Measles Epidemic, possibly dating from October 1968 (9 pages). One article has a map of the epidemic, while several other detail what happened in various communities. DOC20: Article by Centerwall, with discussions, not undated and source unknown (10 pages). A number of discussions about diseases among American Indians. DOC21: Article from Brown Gold, December 1969, no volume number (3 Pages). Written by Mrs. Ron Bodin, it discusses the discovery of the YoanaŒ Indians. DOC22: Cable from Neel to Layrisse, dated 1 April 1968 (1 page). Asking about tracing Asch's equipment. DOC23: Table on "Absorption TestsŒ" undated but enclosed with COR89 (1 page). DOC24: two tables that were enclosed with COR 90 (2 pages). DOC25: an accounting of some of the 1968 expedition's expenses (1 page). DOC26: Reimbursement receipt to Neel from funds advanced to Chagnon (1 page). DOC27: handwritten note dated 19 December 1968 regarding arrangements made for cargo by Chagnon. DOC28: a hand-drawn map titled "Based on conversation with Daniel de Barandiaran April 21, 1970" (1 page). This is in provenance with COR 105 and 106, and given that these two documents are a bit out-of-sorts it is difficult to tell which it relates to at this time. The map is not detailed but has some intriguing notes on it, such as "5000 diamond miners" at the head of Rio Parucito. DOC29: an air-mail envelope addressed to Neel from Chagnon with a mail date of 14 March (in provenance with COR113). DOC30: Cryptic hand-written list that is difficult to decipher, no date (1 page). In provenance with COR114. DOC31: Two drafts of a paper by Neel entitled "Ethical Issues Resulting from Prenatal Diagnosis", undated (50 pages, some typed, some short notes). Discussion of his ethical stance on research and "eugenic" issues. DOC32: List entitled "Participants to Conference on Ethical Problems in Human genetics: Early Diagnosis of Genetic Effects," dated 18-19 May 1970 (4 pages). DOC33: Billing Order for Neel's reimbursement to the Conference referenced in DOC32, dated 4/6/70 (1 page). DOC34: handwritten draft for DOC31, undated (34 pages). DOC35: Draft of paper entitled "The Genetic Structure of a Tribal Population, The Yanomama Indians, Eleven Blood Group Systems and the ABH-Le Secretor Traits," not dated (14 pages). A paper co- written with Gershowitz, the Layrisses, Chagnon, and Ayres, notes the support of "U.S. Atomic Energy Comm. Grant AT(11-1)-1552." DOC36: Table on sera tests from the 1968 expedition (with some 1966 data included for comparison, dated "Tested Oct. 1968" with several other dates below in particular columns (2 pages). This is entitled "Venezuelan Indian Sera from Dr. Neel, Univ. Michigan" and is a series of tests for measles titers. DOC37: handwritten table of HI tests with the header "Sent to: Helen L. Casey, Ph.D. Atlanta, Georgia" dated 26 September 1968 (2 pages). This appears to be more results, with a notation on the back indicating that the bloods were drawn 18 April 1968. DOC38: small handwritten note with no attribution and no dates, in provenance with DOC37 and COR120 (1 page). A number of almost unreadable scribbles that needs to be examined more carefully. DOC39: handwritten table entitled "Individuals with significant titers (4-8)" only date is on the back which says "Yanomamo sera" arrived 8-12-68Œ (2 pages). There are a number of notations next to subject numbers that indicate their status in relation to measles and vaccination. This may bear closer analysis. DOC40: Handwritten table of specimens sent to Casey, dated 6 May 1968 (1 page). Most entries are "plasma only" and contain other specimen indicators. DOC41: handwritten table sent to Casey, dated 26 September 1968 (2 pages). This appears to be a sheet of specimen or subject numbers, with a name, "T. Vittelino Bathazar" in the middle of the first page. DOC42: Handwritten list of measles antibody tables dated 16 April 1969 (the day is a bit obscured due to poor photocopy quality) (2 pages). This summarizes data on samples collected in 1969. DOC43: Table entitled "Microneutralization Tests with Coxsackie B Viruses," undated (1 page). This is the enclosure for COR126. DOC44: Handwritten list with header "Dr. Helen Casey", dated 5 December 1966 (1 page). Lists a number of antibodies. DOC45: Draft of paper "Ethical Issues Resulting from Prenatal Diagnosis," by Neel, undated (18 pages). This appears to be either the final draft or the working presentation copy. DOC46: Oversized handwritten tables entitled "C7 Antibody tiers" and "HI antibody titers" undated and unattributed (10 pages). A very lengthy list of all the major diseases and titers by subject #. DOC47: small handwritten note entitled "Kaufman and Ajello," undated and unattributed (1 page). A list of fungal diseases with a check mark at the bottom. DOC48: handwritten note that states "Yanomamo sera sent to CDC in Atlanta, GA, on November 29, 1966" (1 page). In provenance with COR142. DOC49: handwritten list of numbers with no explanation, undated (in DOC50: Cryptic partial table, handwritten, no date (2 pages). At the top is a sentence that appears to be partial, from a preceding page that is not with these two. It reads "of those not vaccinated by Roche." The list has two headings: "1) with measles" and "2) without measles." There is also a column headed "antibody status" and most of the subject numbers have no status. DOC51: typed list entitled "Blood Tests and Vaccinations in Carona of the Caura River on February 4 and 5, 1968" (2 pages). Lists names, numbers, age, sex, a check-off for vaccination, and genealogical data. DOC52: typed tables on measles vaccinations, dated from 13 February 1968 to 19 February 1968, Bisaasi-teri and Carona and other locations (4 pages). Details names, sex, weight, vaccine status, and notations on sickness and administration of globulin. DOC53: handwritten list of measles vaccinations in the village of Shanamana on Padomo, dated 15 February 1968 (2 pages). Notes names and weights and some sickness indicators, but nothing else. DOC54: typed table entitled "Bebiwa¡s village," dated 16 February 1968 in handwriting at the top. Includes head and teeth measurements as well as vaccination status. DOC55: several handwritten pages (in Spanish?) regarding vaccinations (5 pages). Difficult to decipher, but possibly Roche's notes? DOC56: table of "Measles Vaccinations in February 1968" at Coshirowa-teri (2 pages). Has mostly temperature data. DOC57: Cryptic handwritten note without date or attribution (1 page). Indicates vaccine given at Mavacca in two lots. DOC58: Handwritten note labeled "Dr. Jackson ¤ P.D> - 20 March" without date (1 page). Talks about globulin and has notes on searching for lot number and other things. DOC59: Map and another cryptic note, both undated and unattributed (2 pages). Map shows rivers and movement of multiple diseases. Note page appears to deal with temperatures but a second page companion to it appears to be missing. DOC60: a handwritten note to Neel, dated 12 June 1968 (1 page?). May be related to DOC59 but handwriting looks different. This letter contains MORTALITY FIGURES and some population figures and appears to be continued but the other page or pages are not present here. DOC61: Handwritten note entitled "Cows at Ocamo", undated and unattributed (1 page). Talks about purchases and presence of cows at Ocamo. DOC62: Referees' comments to Neel's AJE paper, dated 3 November 1969 (3 pages). A number of interesting comments. DOC63: some handwritten notes and a table that are in provenance with COR 143, undated (2 pages). These may be Neel's notes for inclusion of data into the AJE article. DOC64: a collection of tables and notes on measles epidemic, dated 25 February 1968 (4 pages). Statistics on temperatures and reactions to the vaccines. DOC65: a collection of long tables on temperatures and other information on the epidemic, undated (6 pages). Discusses temperatures and other symptoms. DOC66: handwritten table on measles tests "after vaccination and after measles," undated (1 page). Lists titers from different villages. DOC67: a treatment of Neel's Science article by Dr. Philip Ashmole (see COR145 and 146), undated (7 pages). A summary of Neel's arguments about evolution, population, and "tribal life." Emphasizes a number of elements, such as warfare. DOC68: Referees' comments for Neel's Science article (6 pages). One referee is very critical of the article from an anthropological stance, the other goes into great length on each section of the manuscript and its faults. The first basically rejects the article, the second advocates heavy revisions. DOC69: small handwritten note signed "RTD," undated (1 page). It appears to refer to another document (see DOC70) which it is in provenance with, and talks about changing some elements of it. DOC70: typed table entitled "Xikrin of the Caitete," unattributed, dated March 1970 (23 pages). Genealogical and residential information for this group. DOC71: Equipment list for the 1968 study, dated January 1968, with a US Customs stamp dated 11 January 1968 (15 pages). Lists all the materials and equipment brought to the Amazon by the expedition. Under Section IV (Medicine and Drugs) 1000 doses of measles vaccine are listed (initially it was 2000 but the 2 is crossed out) but there is no mention of gamma globulin. DOC72: A collection of receipts and reimbursement requests for the 1971 expedition (8 pages). DOC73: A document in Spanish (set aside for further examination), undated and unattributed, on the letterhead of the Venezuelan Ministry of Justice. DOC74: A document entitled "Supplies for Venezuela Expedition 1968" (9 pages). Basically breaks down supplies by Footlocker and Destination (Mavaca, Sta. Maria, etc.). DOC75: A group of documents that relate to the visa applications for the 1964 and 1965 trips (12 pages). Includes a few blank forms and a cover letter. DOC76: Document entitled "Study of Disease Prevalents and Genetic Variation in the Wapishana Indians of Guyana," no submission date, includes the names of Neel, Oliver, and Richard S. Spielman as primary investigators (8 pages). Outlines a plan to the National Scientific Research Council of Guyana to study diseases and populations being acculturated. DOC77: Handwritten questions and notes entitled "Questions" with no date or attribution (2 pages). Discusses admixture and genetic analysis. DOC78: A collection of handwritten tables and accompanying map on allele frequency and admixture, no date or attribution (8 pages). Unclear just when this was written or what it refers to specifically. DOC79: handwritten document entitled "List of Cluster Assignments," dated 29 July 1974 (2 pages). Has a number of "cluster" names and affiliated villages. Does not look like Neel's writing, but other than that there are no clues as to the author. DOC80: Collection of handwritten data tables on alleles, no date or attribution (7 pages). More tables on various sorts of alleles and aspects of frequency, etc. DOC81: Fragment of manuscript and several tables of information on Yanomama villages (5 pages). The manuscript page talks about defining village clusters, and the accompanying tables (apparently prepared by . Tanis) lists village numbers, size, and sector. Given the sampling dates this had to be written after 1971. DOC82: Collection of hand-written notes of village designations and information, all undated (8 pages). Confusing group of notes on village numbers and names. DOC83: Typed tables labeled "Village Designations ¤ Yanomama," not dated or signed (3 pages). A clean, orderly copy of village names and number designations. DOC84: Map entitled "Yanomama Villages Sampled by the 1966 IVIC- Michigan Expedition," dated only 1966 (1 page). Simple mapping of village locations. DOC85: Map entitled only "Altos Orinocos" with the name "James P. Barker Jr." in the lower right-hand corner (1 page copied into 8 sections). A thorough but undated map of the area, with a number of scribbled comments on different events and landmarks. DOC86: Physical examination material for the 1968 expedition(?) (4 pages). A three-page "Code for Physical Exam" and a form for physical examinations. DOC87: a small handwritten note of a list of people, but the purpose of the note is hard to discern because of poor photocopying. It is dated "For 1972-73". DOC88: two pages of notes for research plans (probably 1972 given provenance to COR172 and DOC89) (2 pages). Handwritten notes on different research assistants and work plans. DOC89: Document entitled "Prospectus for use of Indian data," dated 15 January 1972 (2 pages). Discusses a number of plans for using gathered data. DOC90: handwritten document entitled "Short list of Indian Projects," undated (5 pages). A number of ideas for using gathered data. DOC91: a series of handwritten notes from meetings and off-the- cuff brainstorming, most undated but some dated between 1966-1968 (36 pages). A variety of materials that are hard to separate, many are just a few scribbled lines, others cryptic lists, but some discuss his ideas and goals in greater detail, especially those that are dated. DOC92: Article from The Journal of Social Biology, 17(1), March 1970, by Francis Johnston entitled "Phenotypic Assortative Mating Among the Peruvian Cashinahua." (5 pages). DOC93: Paper entitled "Provisional Outline Prepared for the Use of the Staff of the WHO Reference Serum Bank at Yale University," by John R. Paul. M.D., Director, undated (31 pages). A detailed discussion of procedures and conditions at the Bank. Found in one of Neel's miscellaneous files. DOC94: Paper entitled "Personal Fierceness and Headmen in Yanomamo Disputes," by Napoleon A. Chagnon, an undated draft for presentation at the 1968 AAA Meetings (34 pages). Chagnon's discussion of a number of separate incidents of disputes and how they were dealt with (or not) by headmen and the significance of this for Yanomami social organization and adaptation. DOC 95 13/9/1968 Salzano Grant Application to Agency for International Development submitted with letter dated Sept. 13, 1968: "population dynamics and changing patterns of disease among the Cayapo and Tiriyo Indians of Brazil" Introduc and specific aims: Two of the most important problems faced by modern medicine are: a)the understnding of the factors which influence population growth and decline; and b) the identification of the genetic and physiological mechanisms which are important in the adaptation of the genetic and physiologic mechanisms which are important in the adaptation to a rapidly changing environment: or, in a more specific way how human populations react to diseases to which they had not been exposed for varying periods of time. ...A question which is directly related to this problem [of the determinants of population growth and decline--TT] is that concerned with how human populations adapt to a rapidly changing environment. What happens to populations which for a long time had not been exposed to a given disease agent, when this agent suddenly makes its reappearance? Also here studies on Brazilian Indians can be especially rewarding, since some of them can be regarded as immunologically "virgin", unexposed to certain infectious diseases; and while there exist many reports about the decimation of groups due to some of these diseases, sufficiently detailed documentation is lacking... The objective of this project is to complete studies already started on the Cayapo Indians of Northern Brazil and to exend these investigtions to the Tiriy¢. They would be compared to similar data secured by our group on the Caingang..the Xavante and the Yanomam". These studies would include: a) detailed reproductive histories and genealogical information; b) typing of as many individuals as possible for several genetic systems; c)Data about their morbidity and mortality, as well as antibody titres for several agents of disease. DOC 96 1/9/1973 Francis Black Research Proposal to NSF "Adaptation of Primitive Man and Viruses to each other" (Neel was reviewer for NSF, therefore grant applica is in Neel's files) In ABSTRACT: "Where live attenuated vaccines are available as models of the natural viruses, these will be used to see if the Indians exhibit unusual susceptibility or reactivity" In INTRODUCTION: (p2 bot-p.3 top): "The essence of the proposed study is the use of various serological tests to determine which diseases are indigenous to these tribes, which persist after recent introduction, and which die out when introduced. Where live attenuated vaccines are available as models of the natural viruses, these will be used to see if the Indians exhibit unusual susceptiblity or reactivity." PART II. SELECTED DOCUMENTS AND CORRESPONDENCE, IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER 1964--1976 (Undated materials listed separately following entries for 1976) Correspondence coded as COR, Documents as DOC. Numbers correspond to numbers in base list (Part I). Pre 1966: DOC75: A group of documents that relate to the visa applications for the 1964 and 1965 trips (12 pages). Includes a few blank forms and a cover letter. 10 March1964 COR 173 Salzano to Neel "Turner has just spent a day with us..." 1966: DOC84: Map entitled "Yanomama Villages Sampled by the 1966 IVIC-Michigan Expedition," dated only 1966 (1 page). Simple mapping of village locations. 11 February 1966 COR 174 Salzano(?) to Dr. Jerry D. Niswander, Human Genetics Branch, National Institute of Dental Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda 14, MD "There exist now at least two studies showing slight differences in reproductive performance between individuals with different cephalic indices (Bielicki, T. And Z. Welon. 1964. Homo, 15 (1): 22-30; Huizinga, J. And A. Slob. 1965. Koninkl. Nederl. Akademie van Wettenschappen--Amsterdam, Proceedings, Ser. C., 68 (4):297-301). I think it would be worth while to check this in our Xavante series..." 2 May 1966 COR 175 Salzano to Niswander "Enclosed you will find three tables summarizing the calculations I have performed concerning the problem cephalic index: reproductive performance." Table I: classify by dolicho or mesocephalic in rela to average no. of liveborn children... Table 2 & 3: correlation coefficients between cephalic index values and average no. of liveborn children or the averge no. of surviving offspring do [not show?] any significant trend...Since the error of estimates based on such small samples is very large I doubt if more sophisticated analyses should be performed." 13 May 1966 COR 176 Neel to Salzano "This matter of head form and reproductive performance is a problem. It was on my mind even before you brought the question up, but I had felt that we needed much more data before an analysis would be profitable...I would hope that some day we could combine your data on the Caingangs, our Xavante data, and the data we hope to get on the Cayapo, and the Yanomama, and then do an analysis of variance, partitioning by tribe and head form." 16 May 1966 COR 177 Salzano to Maybury-Lewis "Last month [i.e., April] TereNNOTATED INDEX OF SELECTED DOCUMENTS AND CORR Porto Alegre..." 15 June 1966 COR 178 Salzano to Neel. mentions missionary Rev Neill Hawkins, cp 154, Boa Vista, Roraima. Mission has stations at Mucajjai, Rio Uricoera, Rio Auaris and Serra Surucucu. "Bartlett" (another Prot missionary among Brazilian Yanomami) mentioned in later letter 10 June 1966 COR36: Letter to Neel from Dan Shaylor, dated 10 June 1966 (1 page). Updates Neel on the movement of several groups of Indians. 20 September 1966 COR34: Letter to Reverend Macon C. Hare, New Tribes Mission, from Neel, dated 20 September 1966. In it Neel discusses the possibility of working in Brazil. 28 September 1966 COR138: Letter to Dr. U. Pentti Kokko, Chief, Laboratory Branch, Communicable Disease Center, from Neel, dated 28 September 1966 (2 pages). An interesting letter that describes some of the motivations behind Neel's field methods on "significant disease pressures" and talks about his 1966 expedition. 17 October 1966 COR139: Letter to Neel from Kokko, dated 17 October 1966 (2 pages). Discusses which lab members can help Neel in different aspects of his work and discusses the work of the Sera Bank. 28 October 1966 COR140: Letter to Kokko from Neel, dated 28 October 1966 (2 pages). Discusses the options Kokko gave him and also discusses operation "'melt-down'" in more detail. 16 November 1966 COR141: Letter to Neel from Kokko, dated 16 November 1966 (1 page). Talks about testing and the possibility of storing Yanomama sera in the Serum Bank. November 29, 1966 DOC48: handwritten note that states "Yanomamo sera sent to CDC in Atlanta, GA, on November 29, 1966" (1 page). In provenance with COR142. 5 December 1966 DOC44: Handwritten list with header "Dr. Helen Casey", dated 5 December 1966 (1 page). Lists a number of antibodies. 21 December 1966 COR137: Letter to Kaufman from Neel, dated 21 December 1966 (1 page). Discusses a number of enclosures on various aspects of field tests. 1967: 3 January 1967 DOC3: A handwritten page titled "Conference with Dr. Evehard and Oliver" apparently dated 3 January 1967 OR 3 June 1967 (difficult to decipher) that has notes on bacterial diseases and a transportation schedule (1 page). Upon more careful examination, it may be a page of Neel's journal; there is a "33" in the upper left-hand corner it looks like, and the page resembles a journal page. 5 January 1967 COR63: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 5 January 1967 (1 page). Discusses antibody testing. 23 January 1967 COR136: Letter to Neel from Kaufman, dated 23 January 1967 (1 page). Discusses some clinical histories that Neel sent him. 8 January 1967 COR35: Letter to Neel from W. Neill Hawkins, CEM, dated 28 January 1967 (1 page). In it Hawkins asks for advice on recent outbreaks of what he thinks is malaria. 30 January 1967 COR135: Letter to Kaufman from Alice M. Gundersen, Departmental Secretary, dated 30 January 1967 (1 page). Informs Kaufman that Neel is in the field, and has soil collecting packages with him. 16 February 1967 COR66: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 16 February 1967 (2 pages). Apparently a response to an article Neel sent him for comment. [17 Feb 1967?] COR92: A handwritten note with Chagnon's name at the top (1 page). It states that a shipment left Miami on 17 February (most likely 1967 given the note's provenance) and gives details for receiving the shipment. 1 March 1967 COR94: Letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 1 March 1967. Lots of small details about Chagnon's work and travails. 2 March 1967 COR67: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 2 March 1967 (2 pages). Continues discussion of article and talks a little about next expedition. 2 March 1967 COR91: Letter to Chagnon from Neel, dated 2 March 1967 (1 page). Discusses some material shipped down to Chagnon. At the end is the cryptic sentence "No. 1 priority to l'affaire Strauss." [ref. to Levi-Strauss plans?] 6 March 1967 COR27: Letter to Dr. Libero Ajello, Chief of Mycology and Parasitology Section, CDC, from Neel dated 6 March 1967 (2 pages). Neel talks about specimens collected in the 1967 expedition and again discusses his desire to "reconstruct a pre- contact disease picture in the American Indian." He also mentions collaborating with IVIC. 6 March 1967 COR134: Letter to Kaufman from Neel ,dated 6 March 1967 ( 1 page). Describes fungi among the Yanomama and other antibody tests in the future. 9 March 1967 COR133: Letter to Neel from Kaufman, dated 9 March 1967 (1 page). Discusses data in a Neel letter of 6 March. 10 March 1967 COR57: Letter to Neill Hawkins from Neel, date 10 March 1967 (4 pages). A lengthy discussion of the disease picture of the Yanomami. 10 March 1967 COR70: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 10 March 1967 (1 page). Mostly discussion about the 1967 expedition and some comments on Brewer. 13 March 1967 COR68: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 13 March 1967 (1 page). Talks about dissuading Levi-Strauss from working with the Yanomami to prevent overlap. 14 March 1967 COR93: Letter to Chagnon (c/o Layrisse) from Neel, dated 14 March 1967 (2 pages). Discusses the possibility of studying the "untouched" Shukuma, and details a plan to dissuade Levi-Strauss from studying the Yanomami. 16 March 1967 COR72: Letter to Neel from Zulay Layrisse, dated 16 March 1967 (1 page). It is a duplicate of another letter (COR71), with a P.S. that there was an error in the letter dated the 17th(?). 16 March 1967 COR132: Letter to Kaufman from Neel, dated 16 March 1967 (1 page). Mentions sending soil specimens to Ajello. 17 March 1967 COR71: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 17 March 1967 (1 page). A short note on some bloods samples from Chagnon. 22 March 1967 COR69: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 22 March 1967 (1 page). Discusses Layrisse's attendance at a WHO conference. 10 April 1967 COR64: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 10 April 1967 (1 page). Talks about impending French expedition. 24 April 1967 COR65: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 24 April 1967(1 page). Some discussion of research plans. 8 May 1967 COR75: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 8 May 1967 (1 page). Discussion of how their "study of primitive people has just been designated as a part of IBP." 31 May 1967 COR129: Letter to Neel from Casey, dated 31 May 1967 (1 page). Discusses antibody titer tests against "several viral antigens." 7 June 1967 COR73: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 7 June 1967 (1 page). Discussion of samples from the 1967 expedition and possible publication. 7 June 1967 COR130: Letter to Casey from Neel, dated 7 June 1967 (1 page). Thanks her for a preliminary report on the Yanomama test results. 8 June 1967 COR74: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 8 June 1967 (1 page). Quick note regarding Neel's letter to 8 May 1967. 8 June 1967 COR30: Letter to Neel from Dr. Tulio Arends, dated 8 June 1967 (1 page). Arends discusses a number of tests he is conducting for Neel, and at one point mentions "'operation melt- down" in relation to "the study of abnormal transferrins." 26 June 1967 COR31: Letter to Arends from Neel, dated 26 June 1967. Neel mentions "Operation Melt-down" as a "current" activity "for Brazilian Yanomama" and has to do with blood processing. 26 July 1967. COR32: Letter to Arends from Neel, dated 26 July 1967. 1 August 1967 COR 167: Letter to Neel from M.R. de Carlo, Assistant Executive Secretary, US-IBP, National Research Council, dated 1 August 1967 (1 page). Informs Neel that his proposal has been accepted by the program. 17 August 1967 COR128: Letter to Neel from Casey, dated 17 August 1967 (1 page). Discusses rubella HI results. 21 August 1967 COR76: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 21 August 1967 (1 page). Informs Neel that he is now chair of the Venezuelan Committee for the IPB "regarding adaptability of humans." 30 August 1967 COR77: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 30 August 1967 (3 pages). Lays out for Layrisse his tentative plans for the 1968 expedition, and also discusses possible importance of IBP for "the study of the vanishing primitive peoples." 30 August 1967 COR28: Letter to Dr. Joseph H. Schubert, Bacterial Serology Unit, NCDC, from Neel, dated 30 August 1967 (1 page). More discussion of coming to the CDC to talk about disease studies and again mentions wanting to look at the impact of pre- and post- contact disease on the Indians, especially morbidity-mortality rates. 30 August 1967 COR26: Letter to Casey from Neel, dated 30 August 1967 (1 page). Neel discusses the possibilities of getting "the disease picture" of the Yanomami, and talks about trying to set up a date to come to the CDC and discuss a study. (QUESTION: Is this the "conference" that Lindee talks about which she says was to learn about immunization?). 30 August 1967 COR53: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 30 August 1967 (3 pages). One of Neel's first articulations of the expedition plan. 7 September 1967 COR87: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 7 September 1967 (1 page). Asking about blood group studies on American Indians. 15 September 1967 COR 29: Letter to Dr. Robert A. Hingson, Department of Anesthesiology, Western Reserve University, from Neel, dated 15 September 1967 (1 page). Neel requests help for immunizing against measles, smallpox, pertussis and tuberculosis. The article is indexed here as DOC12. 18 September 1967 COR18: Letter to Layrisse from Chagnon, dated 18 September 1967 (2 pages) It seems to be a wrap-up letter of some sort. 19 September 1967 COR54: Letter to Dan Shaylor from Neel, dated 19 September 1967 (2 pages). More discussion of his research plan. 19 September 1967 COR56: Letter to Bob Shaylor from Chagnon, dated 19 September 1967 (2 pages). Chagnon reiterates the expedition plan Neel sent earlier and asks them to aid a French anthropology student. 19 September 1967 COR95: Letter to Clifford Evans, Museum of Natural History, from Chagnon, dated 19 September 1967 (1 page). Talking about donating Yanomami material culture items, and some professional small talk. 27 September 1967 COR126: Letter to Neel from Casey, dated 27 September 1967 (1 page). Talks about some neutralization tests and Neel's plans to visit the NCDC (see DOC43). 28 September 1967 COR97: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 28 September 1967 (2 pages). Discussion of assorted details on the expedition (responded to by Neel in COR96). 29 September 1967 COR19: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 29 September 1967 (1 page). In it Neel discusses the need for a statement from IVIC for visas, and discusses who will be coming on the expedition. 9 October 1967 COR96: Letter to Layrisse from Neel ,dated 9 October 1967 (1 page). Talks about expedition preparations, and a plan to invite Yanomami to Santa Maria for their research 9 October 1967 COR86: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 9 October 1967 (1 page). Talking about information of gene frequencies in Indians. 13 October 1967 COR55: Letter to Neel from Dan Shaylor, handwritten and dated 13 October 1967 (3 pages). Response to Neel's 19 September letter (COR54). Discusses a number of recent developments in the field (such as the death of the MAF pilots) 19 October 1967 COR131: Letter to Neel from Leo Kaufman, Chief, Fungus Immunology Unit, NCDC, dated 19 October 1967 (1 page). Notes that either 13 or 20 November is good for him and Ajello to meet with Neel. . 21 October 1967 COR79: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 21 October 1967 (2 pages). Discusses admixture and gene flow. 23 October 1967 COR125: Letter to Casey from Neel, dated 23 October 1967 (1 page). Asking for permission for a quote from a manuscript. 24 October 1967 COR80: Letter to Neel and Dr. Henry Gershowitz from Layrisse, dated 24 October 1967 (2 pages). Discussion of Gershowitz's report on Rh and DCE results (with enclosed table). 25 October 1967 COR169: Letter to the Venezuelan Consulate from James E. Lesch, Assistant to the Vice-President for Academic Affairs, dated 25 October 1967 (1 page). Verifies Neel's employment. 2 November 1967 COR170: Letter to Consul General, Venezuelan Consulate from Neel, dated 2 November 1967 (1 page, 3 copies). Certifies Ernest Migliazza's position as Research Assistant. 7 November 1967 COR124: Letter to Neel from Casey, dated 7 November 1967 (1 page). Discusses the anti-disease measures Neel must take before coming to the Virology Section of the NCDC. His arrival date is to be 19 November 1967. 15 November 1967 COR78: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 15 November 1967 (3 pages). More discussion of his plans for the 1968 expedition. 16 November 1967 COR58: Letter to the US Embassy in Caracas from John R. Trotter, US Atomic Energy Commission, dated 16 November 1967 (1 page). A request for the Embassy to aid in the transport of Neel's samples. 16 November 1967 COR166: Letter to the U.S. Embassy in Caracas from John R. Totter, Director, Division of Biology and Medicine, AEC, dated 16 November 1967 (1 page). Letter of Introduction asking that the US Embassy help with air transportation for Neel's samples. 21 November 1967 COR37: Letter to Mr. Robert Shaylor from Neel, dated 21 November 1967 (2 pages). Neel discusses the expedition's plans and at the end of the letter discusses trying to immunize Indians during the expedition. November 28, 1967 COR39: Letter to Neel from Robert Shaylor, dated November 28, 1967. He talks about the coming of measles above Mavaca. 5 December 1967 COR81: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 5 December 1967 (1 page). Discusses the possible re-designation of the Yanomami project by IBP and mentions an AEC grant in relation to their work. 11 December 1967 COR38: Handwritten letter to Neel from Dan Shaylor, dated 11 December 1967 (1 page). Shaylor discusses his plans regarding the 1968 expedition, and mentions in a P.S. that "[t]here are reports of measles coming from Brazil down the Orinoco." 11 December 1967 COR5: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, date 11 December 1967 (1 page). This is the letter where Neel requests Layrisse to obtain the Venezuelan government's permission to vaccinate the Yanomami. As he puts it, "[t]here seems to be a raging measles epidemic amongst the Yanomama" on the Brazilian side. 12 December 1967 COR20: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 12 December 1967 (2 pages, plus a short 1 page version of the IPB submission). Here Layrisse discusses several issues, including a "tentative draft of the joining studies between your Department and IVIC." This draft is listed in this Index as DOC8. [12 December 1967 ?] DOC8: document titled "IBP Program" that appears to be a draft for a cooperative study between Neel's Department and IVIC, written by Layrisse (1 page). It is in provenance with COR20 and appears to have been enclosed with that letter. 15 December 1967 COR127: handwritten note (draft perhaps) to Casey from Neel, marked "sent 12/15/67" (1 page). Discusses sera shipment details. 19 December 1967. COR47: Letter to Neel from Dr. R.R. Widmann, Director of Clinical Research, Cyanamid International, dated 19 December 1967. Dr. Widmann tells Neel that his corporation is donating 1000 doses of measles vaccine and then gives him instructions on how to store it and keep it active. 19 December 1967 COR48: Letter to Dr. Fernano C. Ottati, Director of Medical Research and Development, Cyanamid International, from Dr. M. Martina da Silva, Chief, Office of Research Coordination, PAHO, dated 19 December 1967. The letter is a request for 1000 doses of measles vaccine for Neel's expedition. 19 December 1967 COR21: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 19 December 1967 (1 page). In it Layrisse briefly discusses the IBP draft (DOC8) and talks about genetic studies. 20 December 1967 COR40: Letter to Dan Shaylor, apparently from Chagnon, but unsigned (his name is in brackets at the top of the first page, handwritten), dated 20 December 1967 (2 pages). He discusses a number of aspects of the expedition, including plans to inoculate Indians from measles. He states that they "are confident that it will work without producing undesirable side effects." 21 December 1967 COR22: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 21 December 1967 (1 page). Neel discusses rewriting the IBP prospectus and discusses vaccinations given that "there is a bad measles outbreak on the Brazilian side." 27 December 1967 COR52: Letter to Dr. da Silva from Neel, dated 27 December 1967 (1 page). Requests PAHO papers for the expedition's equipment. 1968: [1968] DOC86: Physical examination material for the 1968 expedition(?) (4 pages). A three-page "Code for Physical Exam" and a form for physical examinations. [1968] DOC74: A document entitled "Supplies for Venezuela Expedition 1968" (9 pages). Basically breaks down supplies by Footlocker and Destination (Mavaca, Sta. Maria, etc.). [1968] DOC16: A photocopy of several pamphlets on the use of two measles vaccines and globulin, all issued or revised in 1966 and 1967 (6 pages). These pamphlets discuss the uses and contraindications for the vaccines, which appear to include certain sorts of gamma globulin injections (?). They appear to be in provenance with 1968 materials. 3 January 1968 COR168: Letter to Mauricio M. Bernbaum U.S. Embassy in Caracas from Stone, dated 3 January 1968 (1 page). A letter of introduction emphasizing the importance of Neel's work and requesting assistance for this expedition. 3 January 1968 COR165: Letter "To Whom It May Concern" from Frederick L. Stone, Ph.D., Director, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, dated 3 January 1968 (1 page). Letter of Introduction for Neel and his expedition. 5 January 1968 COR84: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated "5 de Enero 1968" (1 page). Letter about adjusting the IBP proposal. [5 January 1968 ?] DOC9: ruled handwritten note titled "CABLE" to Layrisse from Neel, apparently sent 5 January 1968 (1 page). The note states the arrival of expedition members and supplies. [7 January to 8 March 1968] DOC1: Field journal of Dr. Neel, pp. 36-134, covering dates 7 January to 8 March 1968. 8 January 1968 COR25: Letter to Neel from Casey, dated 8 January 1968 (1 page). Casey discusses a test she ran for measles antibodies (the results are listed in this Index as DOC11). 8 January 1968 DOC11: Enclosure from Casey to Neel dated 8 January 1968 (1 page). This is a list of measles HI antibody titers tested that is referenced in COR25. 9 January 1968 COR 179 Willard R. Centerwall "To Whom It May Concern" (i.e., missionaries in Brazil )to accompany 1000 doses of vaccine. It sets out a protocol for immunizing the Yanomami. At the bottom is a handwritten note asking "[I]f possible, compare the reactions of the two [makes?] of vaccine (canine kidney + egg culture)." The protocol reads: "In brief, it should be realized that the Edmonston strain of vaccine though immunologically effective is known to cause significantly high fevers and reactions in some persons. This is perhpas even more likely among measles-free peoples. The concomitant use of gamma globulin would help modify the reactions but in the absence of gammaglobulin, measles vaccination is still considered very much worth the risks providing certain precautions are taken, i.e.: (1) avoid vaccinating infants especially under 1 year of age, TB patients, acutely ill people, and persons who are old and/or infirm. (2) vaccinate only half of the able-bodied village ppopulation at one time so the unvaccinated individuals will be able to care for the needs of the vaccinated ones. (3) vaccinate populations which can be observed during the resting period (8-12 days post vaccination) so that any high feveers can be treated with aspirin and fluids and any bacterial comliccations treated with antibiotics or sulfa drugs... (4) alert the people being vaccinated that they may feel a bit ill from the vaccination but not as badly as the disease from which they are being protected. The vaccination causes what is essentially a mild case of measles which is not contagious..." 10 January 1968 COR15: Letter to Dr. Francis L. Black from Centerwall, dated 10 January 1968 (1 page). In it he talks about the flyers that came with the vaccine and globulin and how they will adjust dosages, and also who they will not vaccinate. He also references the "half village" immunization procedure (leave half of village unvaccinated so they can care for the vaccinated half while suffering reactions from vaccine). 10 January 1968 COR123: Letter to Casey from Carol Nevins, dated 10 January 1968 (1 page). She informs Casey that Neel has left and that her correspondence will be sent to him. 11 January 1968 DOC71: Equipment list for the 1968 study, dated January 1968, with a US Customs stamp dated 11 January 1968 (15 pages). Lists all the materials and equipment brought to the Amazon by the expedition. Under Section IV (Medicine and Drugs) 1000 doses of measles vaccine are listed (initially it was 2000 but the 2 is crossed out) but there is no mention of gamma globulin. 26 January 1968 COR83: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated "26 de Enero 1968" (1 page). Apologizes for vacuntainer problems and comments that "blood arrived in excellent condition" to his lab. February 1968 DOC56: table of "Measles Vaccinations in February 1968" at Coshirowa-teri (2 pages). Has mostly temperature data. 2 February 1968 COR82: Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 2 February 1968 (1 page). Requests blood samples and expresses gladness that "the minor problems faced" by the expedition "have been solved properly." 4 and 5 February , 1968 DOC51: typed list entitled "Blood Tests and Vaccinations in Carona of the Caura River on February 4 and 5, 1968" (2 pages). Lists names, numbers, age, sex, a check-off for vaccination, and genealogical data. 13 February 1968 DOC52: typed tables on measles vaccinations, dated from 13 February 1968 to 19 February 1968, Bisaasi-teri and Carona and other locations (4 pages). Details names, sex, weight, vaccine status, and notations on sickness and administration of globulin. 15 February 1968 DOC53: handwritten list of measles vaccinations in the village of Shanamana on Padomo, dated 15 February 1968 (2 pages). Notes names and weights and some sickness indicators, but nothing else. 16 February 1968 DOC54: typed table entitled "Bebiwa's village," dated 16 February 1968 in handwriting at the top. Includes head and teeth measurements as well as vaccination status. 17 February 1968 COR142: Letter to Neel (Chagnon crossed out), from Merrill Seely, dated 17 February 1968. Notes data enclosed an d thanks him for his help at Carona. 25 February 1968 DOC64: a collection of tables and notes on measles epidemic, dated 25 February 1968 (4 pages). Statistics on temperatures and reactions to the vaccines. 29 February 1968 COR90: Letter to Layrisse from Ruth Sanger of the Lister Institute, dated 29 February 1968 (1 page). Going over some tests her group conducted from one family's bloods. 29 February 1968 DOC18: article from Brown Gold, March 1968, 25(11) (1 page), entitled "Measles Among the Indians" by Mrs., Joe Dawson. Discusses some details of the measles epidemic. 11 March 1968 COR51: Letter to Neel from Chagnon, handwritten and dated 11 March 1968 (1 page). Chagnon assures Neel that more bloods are coming and talks a bit about filming The Feast. 11 March 1968 COR98: Letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 11 March 1968 (1 page). Post-expedition trivia (probably a duplicate of COR51). 13 March 1968 COR42: Letter to Neel from the Paul Dye family, dated 13 March 1968, handwritten (2 pages). The letter discusses a new measles outbreak at "Mono teri." They state that "many have died since you've gone, in Sahanma¤a also." 1 April 1968 DOC22: Cable from Neel to Layrisse, dated 1 April 1968 (1 page). Asking about tracing Asch's equipment. 1 April 1969 COR 164: Neel to Nelson (2 pages). Discusses Nelson's NAS application and his own desire for more North American genetic information. 2 April 1968 COR85: Letter to Layrisse from Neel dated 2 April 1968 (1 page). Follow-up on expedition, mostly about specimens and Ward leaving some items behind. 6 April 1969 COR163 Richard K. Nelson, Department of Anthropology, UCSB to Neel from(1 page). Discusses possibility of genetics studies with Athapaskan group. 4 April 1968 COR16: Letter to Roche from Neel, dated 4 April 1968 (1 page). In it he mentions talking about the measles at a PAHO meeting, and also asks if Roche would "drop me a few lines characterizing your clinical impression of the young Brazilian whom you saw with measles." 15 April 1968 COR24: Letter to Dr. Helen L. Casey from Neel, dated 15 April 1968 (1 page). Neel discusses the expedition's fruits, and in particular focuses on the research opportunities around the measles epidemic, particularly at Ocamo where an earlier expedition had found measles antibodies. 15 April 1968 DOC6: Handwritten note with stamp that dates it "SENT Apr 15 1968 Human Genetics" (1 page) It is apparently to Roche from Neel asking for assurance that a vaccine donation is acceptable to the Venezuelan government. 18 April 1968 COR 180 Neel to Salzano "Our field work in Venezuela went very roughly indeed, thanks to an epidemic of measles. In the end we made out reasonably well, but it was probably the most strenuous two months of my entire life. The AEC grant that supports this work comes up for its three-year renewal this spring...18 April 1968 COR88: Letter to Layrisse from Neel, dated 18 April 1968 (2 pages). Most of the letter is about resolving discrepancies in blood typing and Rh types. Neel also mentions that he is working hard on the renewal grant from the AEC. 18 April 1968 DOC4: A receipt dated 18 April 1968 from Philips Roxane, Inc., that appears in provenance with COR12 (1 page). 19 April 1968 COR49: Letter to Neel from Dr. Kenneth R. Wilcox. Jr., Associate Director for Laboratory Services, Michigan Department of Public Health, dated 19 April 1968 (1 page). It attempts to explain the contraindication warning on an unnamed batch of measles vaccine. 19 April 1968 DOC5 A Western Union telegram dated 19 April 1968, from Roche to Neel (1 page). The message reads "DONATION ACCEPTABLE OUR GOVERNMENT." [NB: Presumably response to Neel's note of 15 April. This appears to have been the document originally claimed by S. Lindee to be Venezuelan government permission for the AEC expedition of Jan--March 1968 to vaccinate, despite its April date] 22 April 1968 COR50 Letter to Roche from Neel, dated 22 April 1968 (1 page). Neel tells Roche that more vaccine and globulin are on their way. 22 April 1968 COR122 Letter to Neel from Casey, dated 22 April 1968 (1 page). Informing Neel that he can send "the ten plasma samples" although she may not get to do all the tests he wants. 22 April 1968 COR41 Letter to Bob Shaylor from Neel, dated 22 April 1968 (2 pages). He discusses further measles problems and asks for data on temperature response. He also states that the epidemic "would undoubtedly been worse without the vaccine we were able to get in. . ." and asks for more information on mortality. 15/4/68 DOC6 Handwritten note (text for a telegram?)with stamp that dates it "SENT Apr 15 1968 Human Genetics" (1 page) It is apparently from Neel to Roche asking for assurance that a vaccine donation is acceptable to the Venezuelan government. 23 April 1968 DOC7 A cable to Roche from Neel dated 23 April 1968 (1 page). In it Neel states that 1000 doses of vaccine and globulin are being shipped. 25 April 1968 COR89 Letter to Neel from Layrisse, dated 25 April 1968 (2 pages, plus attachment entered as DOC23). This is a discussion of the blood tests from the 1968 expedition. 26 April 1968 COR 11: Letter to Dr. Kenneth J. Wilcox, Jr., Associate Director for Laboratory Services, Michigan Department of Public Health., from Neel, dated 26 April 1968 (1 page). In it Neel acknowledges "safe receipt of the immune serum globulin" and states that "[q]uite aside from the usual humanitarian considerations, serious decimation of the group would mean the loss of a tremendous resource for studies of human biology." 26 April 1968 COR13: Letter to Dr. S.J. Musser from Neel, dated 26 April 1968 (1 page). In it Neel acknowledges receipt of 2000 doses of vaccine, explains its usage (in language very similar to COR11) and states that the vaccine is on its way to Venezuela. (QUESTION for later examination: why were only 1000 doses sent instead of the whole 2000?). 6 May 1968 DOC40: Handwritten table of specimens sent to Casey, dated 6 May 1968 (1 page). Most entries are "plasma only" and contain other specimen indicators. 6 May1968 COR 181 Marcel Roche to Neel. "The vaccines finally did arrive on Thursday [April] 25...In the meantime...the ministry [of health]? Had received a large batch of vaccines and let us have 800 of them (Sharp and Dohme). They apparently have conducted studies which have proved to their satisfaction that one third of the dose was just as effective as the whole dose and produced less reaction..We will proceed with vaccination on that basis. As for the vaccines sent by you, I believe in view of the close expiration date, the best solution was to send them to the Ministry of Health, who agreed to use them promptly so that they are not wasted." 7 May 1968 COR17: Letter to Neel from Will and Mary Roundy, dated 7 May 1968 (1 page). In this short letter the Roundys tell Neel that they noted the following mortality from the measles epidemics: 1) at Shanama¤a, 3 adults and 10 children died, including an infant given globulin. 2) they state that "measles are running rampant at Casharawa teri and Yabitawa teri. 18 have died and the rest are very sick." 3) They state that another group acquired measles (Shibariwa; teri?) and 38 who came out all got well, but some who stayed at home died (no figure). 13 May 1968 COR99: Letter to Chagnon from Neel, dated 13 May 1968 (1 page). Details Chagnon's food expenses. 20 May 1968 COR45: Letter to Neel from Bob Shaylor, dated 20 May 1968 (2 pages). States that about 4000 doses of vaccine have been received and that "4 teams are out vaccinating." 10 June 1968 COR43: Letter to Bob Shaylor from Neel, dated 10 June 1968 (1 page). He mentions the vaccine exchange that took place, and again notes that he feels the expedition's work lessened the impact of the epidemic. 12 June 1968 DOC60: a handwritten note to Neel, dated 12 June 1968 (1 page?). May be related to DOC59 but handwriting looks different. This letter contains MORTALITY FIGURES and some population figures and appears to be continued but the other page or pages are not present here. 20 June 1968 COR46: Letter to Neel from Dr. Charles Patton, dated 20 June 1968 (2 long pages). Discusses vaccination efforts in Brazil. 20 June 1968 Charles N. Patton, M.D., to Neel (reporting on disposition of the 1,000 doses of vaccine sent by Neel. "Only about 500 could be used by our missionaries in this area. Tootobi and Mucaja¡ had recently suffered measles epidemics, so didn't need the vaccine. Uaic station istemporarily closed...That left only Auris and Surucuc£. In Auris about 150 doses were used...The missionary was left alone to care for all the reactions, and apparently was too overewhelmed to record the data as I had requested... She says, "All had fever, in 50% it was between 39 and 40 degrees C. 90% had conjunctivitis and cough. Some were confined to their hammock. 2% had an urticarial type eruption." An unsepcified number had measles-type eruptions--"in 4 children it covered the entire body." In Surucuc£ about 300 doses were applied, but nearly half of these were vaccine purchased by the mission (Lirurgen [a brand of Schwarz vaccine--T.T.]). After hearing of the strong reactions in Auris, they were afraid to vaccinate everybody at once with the Roxanne (Edmonston B: T.T.] vaccine. Yet they realized that if they did only part of the people, the rest would observe the reactions and as a result refuse to accept the vaccine at a later date. So they decided to vaccinate about half with the "non-reacting" Lirurgen... 23 June 1968 COR121: Letter to Neel from Donna T. Warfield, Viral Immunoserology Unit, National Communicable Disease Center, dated 23 June 1968 (1 page). This is a list of CF and HI test results. July 1968 DOC 17: article from Brown Gold, July 1968, 26(3) (1 page). It mentions the continuing penetration of measles into Guiaca territory in Venezuela. 5 July 1968 COR14: Letter to Dr. Charles Patton from Neel, dated 5 July 1968 (1 page). One particular remark stands out: he stated that "[t]he mortality in Brazil is lower than the mortality in Venezuela." 22 July 1968 COR23: Letter to Dr. Helen L. Casey, Chief, Viral Immunoserology Unit, National Communicable Disease Center, from Neel dated 22 July 1968 (2 pages). Neel discusses a number of issues centered on the article he writing; one thing he mentions in particular is the need to "collect more data from the field on mortality." 31 July 1968 DOC15: A photocopy of an envelope and an enclosed map entitled "The Encroachment of Measles Upon the Yanomamo Territory of South America" (2 pages). The envelope has Centerwall's name written on it and is dated 31 July 1968. 1 August 1968 COR120: Letter to Casey from Neel, dated 1 August 1968 (1 page). Informs her that more specimens are coming and that "I think we have a really interesting little paper going." [12 August 1968] DOC39: handwritten table entitled "Individuals with significant titers (4-8), only date is on the back which says "Yanomamo sera - arrived 8-12-68" (2 pages). There are a number of notations next to subject numbers that indicate their status in relation to measles and vaccination. This may bear closer analysis. 16 September 1968 COR33: Letter to Mr. Rodney Lewis, Cruzada de Evangeliza‡ao Mundial, from Neel, dated 16 September 1968. In it he again mentions wanting to "understand the disease picture among the Yanomama," with the objective of advising on improving their health. "[T]his policy paid off handsomely in connection with the measles epidemic," he says. 18 September 1968 COR61: Letter to Mr. And Mrs. Will Roundy from Neel, dated 18 September 1968 (1 page). Thanks them for their August letter and talks about future plans. 24 September 1968 COR44: Letter to Kathy Earle, New Tribes Mission, from Chagnon, dated 24 September 1968 (1 page). Discusses planning for the 1969 expedition. 26 September 1968 DOC37: handwritten table of HI tests with the header "Sent to: Helen L. Casey, Ph.D. - Atlanta, Georgia," dated 26 September 1968 (2 pages). This appears to be more results, with a notation on the back indicating that the bloods were drawn 18 April 1968. 26 September 1968 DOC41: handwritten table sent to Casey, dated 26 September 1968 (2 pages). This appears to be a sheet of specimen or subject numbers, with a name, "T. Vittelino Bathazar" in the middle of the first page [October 1968] DOC36: Table on sera tests from the 1968 expedition (with some 1966 data included for comparison, dated "Tested Oct. 1968" with several other dates below in particular columns (2 pages). This is entitled "Venezuelan Indian Sera from Dr. Neel, Univ. Michigan" and is a series of tests for measles titers. [October 1968?] DOC19: A collection of articles (source unknown) by various missionaries about the Measles Epidemic, possibly dating from October 1968 (9 pages). One article has a map of the epidemic, while several others detail what happened in various communities. December 1968 COR62: Letter to Neel from the Roundys, dated December 1968. A handwritten footnote says that measles have "reached the new location near the Brasilian border." 19 December 1968 DOC27: handwritten note dated 19 December 1968 regarding arrangements made for cargo by Chagnon. 1969: 1 April 1969 COR 164: Letter to Nelson from Neel, dated 1 April 1969 (2 pages). Discusses Nelson's NAS application and his own desire for more North American genetic information. 6 April 1969 COR163: Letter to Neel from Richard K. Nelson, Department of Anthropology, UCSB, dated 6 April 1969 (1 page). Discusses possibility of genetics studies with Athapaskan group. 15 April 1969 COR161: Letter to Neel from Dr. Osvalds Mutchinick, Direccion Nacional de Genetica, Secretaria de Estado de Salud Publica, dated 15 April 1969 (2 pages). Asks for assistance with fingerprint study. Encloses a table of that study. 16 April 1969 DOC42: Handwritten list of measles antibody tables dated 16 April 1969 (the day is a bit obscured due to poor photocopy quality) (2 pages). This summarizes data on samples collected in 1969. 8 May 1969 COR162: Letter to Mutchinick from Neel, dated 8 May 1969 (1 page). Informs Mutchinick that he is still analyzing his own dermatoglyphic information. 15 May 1969 COR102: Letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 15 May 1969 (1 page). A number of small issues discussed, such as changes in Indian policy and IVIC staff, a story about "a mad Frenchman," and some other minutia. 18 May 1969 COR100: Letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 18 May 1969 (1 page). Talks about iodine experiments and a discussion Chagnon had with Jean-Paul Dumont about taking blood samples from the Panare (1 page). 19 May 1969 COR160: Letter to Neel from Gunn, dated 19 May 1969 (1 page). Discusses his work as doctor and ethnologist. 23 May 1969 COR101: Letter to Chagnon from Neel, dated 23 May 1969 (2 pages). Talks about iodine experiments and further blood studies, and references the possibility of [himself and ?] Chagnon going to Ohio State. 27 May 1969 COR159: Letter to Dr. S. William A. Gunn, WHO, from Neel, dated 27 May 1969 (1 page). Thanks him for information on the Haida. 11 July 1969 COR155: Letter to Neel from Rolf A. Geerdink, Stichting Academisch Ziekenhuis Utrecht, dated 11 July 1969 (2 pages). Discusses his own work with the Trio and Wayana Indians on blood typing and "skinfold thicknesses." 13 August 1969 COR149: Letter to Neel from Dr. Francis L. Black, dated 13 August 1969 (1 page). Comments on Neel's "measles" article and discusses the question of "'racial susceptibility to measles," which he states was an idea of Neel's that was misrepresented in a WHO Chronicle article. 22 August 1969 COR150: Letter to Black from Neel, dated 22 August 1969 (1 page) Neel thanks Black for his comments. 3 November 1969 DOC62: Referees' comments to Neel's AJE paper, dated 3 November 1969 (3 pages). A number of interesting comments. 17 November 1969 COR143: Letter to Neel from John P. Fox, Assistant Managing Editor, AJE, dated 17 November 1969 (2 pages). Discusses the referees comments of DOC62, agreeing with the first referee but offering rewriting suggestions. His most trenchant criticism is that Neel needs to consider "the probable relation of age to the severity of clinical responses to both wild virus and vaccine virus infections." December 1969 DOC21: Article from Brown Gold, December 1969, no volume number (3 Pages). Written by Mrs. Ron Bodin, it discusses the discovery of the "Yoana" Indians 5 December 1969 COR144: Letter to Fox from Neel, dated 5 December 1969 (2 pages). Neel discusses the changes he has made in response to Fox's and the referees' comments. 1970: March 1970a DOC70: typed table entitled "Xikrin of the Caitete," unattributed, dated March 1970 (23 pages). Genealogical and residential information for this group. March 1970 b DOC92: Article from The Journal of Social Biology, 17(1), March 1970, by Francis Johnston entitled "Phenotypic Assortative Mating Among the Peruvian Cashinahua." (5 pages). 6 April 1970 DOC33: Billing Order for Neel's reimbursement to the Conference referenced in DOC32, dated 4/6/70 (1 page). 21 April, 1970 DOC28: a hand-drawn map titled "Based on conversation with Daniel de Barandiaran April 21, 1970" (1 page). This is in provenance with COR105 and 106, but it is difficult to tell which it relates to at this time. The map is not detailed but has some intriguing notes on it, such as "5000 diamond miners" at the head of Rio Parucito. 22 and 24 April 1970 COR105: Letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 22 April AND 24 April 1970 (6 pages). Full of details on recent fieldwork and assorted issues around research, including relations with other researchers. 28 April 1970 COR151: Letter to Neel from Dr. Alfonso Paredes, Professor of Research Psychiatry, University of Oklahoma Medical Center, dated 28 April 1970 (1 page). Introduces a research proposal he wants Neel to examine. 1 May 1970 COR106: hand-written letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 1 May 1970 (2 pages). Discusses research and prospects from next expedition. 1 May 1970 COR104: Letter to Chagnon from Neel, dated 1 May 1970 (1 page). More details on future work and personnel. 11 May 1970 COR152: Letter to Paredes from Neel, dated 11 May 1970 (1 page). Comments on a draft research project Paredes sent him, noting the similarities and commenting on his own ideas of "acculturation." 15 May 1970 COR103: Letter to Chagnon from Neel, dated 15 May 1970 (2 pages). A number of small details about ongoing and future work. 18 May 1970 COR107: hand-written letter to Neel ("Jim") from Chagnon, dated 18 May 1970 (1 page). Some suggestions on scheduling the research plan, with a hand-drawn map at the bottom. 18 May 1970 COR119: Letter to Neel from Mary G. Lauer, Conference Coordinator, NIH, dated 18 May 1970 (1 page). Confirms Neel's reimbursement for the conference referenced in DOC32. Included with this letter was DOC33. 18-19 May 1970 DOC32: List entitled "Participants to Conference on Ethical Problems in Human genetics: Early Diagnosis of Genetic Effects," dated 18-19 May 1970 (4 pages). 5- 6 June 1970 COR109: Letter to Neel and Layrisse from Chagnon, dated 5 June AND 6 June 1970 (6 pages). Another detail- filled letter on fieldwork and assorted other issues. 6 June 1970 COR8: Letter to Dr. S.J. Musser, Director of Research, Philips Roxane Inc., from Neel, dated 26 June 1970 (1 page). In it Neel points out an acknowledgment from an article. 26 June 1970 COR9: Letter to Dr. R. M. Hodges, Director, Ann Arbor Research, Parke Davis and Company Research Laboratories, from Neel, dated 26 June 1970 (1 page). In it Neel points out an acknowledgment from an article. 26 June 1970 COR10: Letter to Dr. Kenneth J. Wilcox, Jr., Associate Director for Laboratory Services, Michigan Department of Public Health., from Neel, dated 26 June 1970 (1 page). In this letter Neel thanks Wilcox's office for some gamma-globulin. "Enclosed please find a small piece of evidence, as to how the gamma-globulin was put to work." 26 June 1970 COR157: Letter to Neel from Geerdink, dated 26 June 1970 (1 page). Note of thanks and some personal updates. 24 July 1970 COR153: Letter to Mrs. Josephine K. Doherty, Associate Program Director for Environmental Biology, National Science Foundation from Richard Oliver, Staff Officer, National Research Council, dated 24 July 1970 (1 page). Discusses Paredes' research proposal and its administrative rejection by the IBP because "we have closed the US/IBP to additional IRPs." He requests that this not prejudice the project for the NSF. 8 July 1970 COR158: Letter to Geerdink from Carol Nevins, dated 8 July 1970 (1 page). Tells Geerdink that Neel will get his letter on his return from South America. 24 July 1970 COR154: Letter to Paredes from Oliver, dated 24 July 1970 (2 pages). Explains the decision to reject Paredes' proposal. 7 August 1970 DOC13: Memo to Dr. R.L. Westerman, from M.T. Kenny, Assay Lab, Dow Chemical, dated 7 August 1970 (1 page). The memo discusses proper amounts of serum needed for various disease testings. 4 November 1970 COR1: Letter to Neel from Dr. Joseph E. Jackson, Director of Biological Clinical Research, Dow Chemical Company, dated 4 November 1970 (3 pages). A discussion of "a possible trivalent live virus vaccine field trial in the Yanomama." He goes over a number of technical points, mostly focused on questions of drawing and transporting bloods at the proper times. 9 December 1970 COR146: Letter to Neel from Ashmole, dated 9 December 1970. Introduces a treatment he wrote of Neel's Science article that he wishes to publish (see DOC67). 9 December 1970 COR147: Letter to Neel from Evert C. Jones, U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service, dated 9 December 1970 (2 pages). Discusses his impression of Neel's theory of intelligence in relation to his own, which believes that high intelligence has "negative survival value for the species." 22 December 1970 DOC2: "Statement of Investigator" Draft Protocol Submission for a Study entitled "An Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Live, Attenuated Rubeola, Rubella and Mumps Vaccine Administered in Combination." The date on the Draft document is 12/22/70, and it is in provenance with COR2 and is also referred to in that letter. It appears that it was written by Dr. Jackson, but in COR2 he states that it was discussed with Neel prior to its drafting. The Statement has a cover sheet and two copies of the Draft Protocol, each five pages in length, for a total of 11 pages. 15 December 1970 COR145: Letter to Dr. N. Philip Ashmole, Associate Professor of Biology, Peabody Museum of Natural History from Neel, dated 15 December 1970 (1 page). Thanks Ashmole for his treatment of the Science article and gently critiques a point about brain size. 18 December 1970 COR148: Letter to Jones from Neel, dated 18 December 1970 (1 page). Neel replies that "we are thinking along similar lines" to Jones', and that he would like to administer intelligence tests to "chiefs and non-chiefs" in tribal groups to see if there are "significant differences," but that it might not be possible. 23 December 1970 COR2: Letter to Neel from Dr. Joseph E. Jackson, dated 23 December 1970, cc'ed to Chagnon (4 pages). In this letter Jackson states that he is sending them a first draft protocol (see DOC2) for the trivalent live virus vaccine study. He discusses a number of issues in relation to that, such as observing and recording reactions. He discusses some of Dow's reservations about the project in the second half of the letter, such as whether the Yanomama selected would be appropriate subjects who were not already measles-immune (he mostly seems concerned about their ability to control test conditions). 30 December 1970 COR3: Letter to Jackson from Neel, dated 30 December 1970 (1 page). This is Neel's tentative rejection of the Dow project. He gives several reasons why he thinks the team may not be able to do the work, but in the end it comes down to his own crowded research schedule. 30 December 1970 COR59: Letter to Dr. Joseph E. Jackson from Neel, dated 30 December 1970 (1 page). Neel declines to participate in the triple vaccine study (this appears to be the same document as COR3). 1971: [1971] DOC72: A collection of receipts and reimbursement requests for the 1971 expedition (8 pages). 30 December 1970 COR110: Letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 3 January 1971 (1 page). Written "in-flight," notes on the schedule and personnel for a subsequent research expedition. 6 January 1971 COR4: Letter to Neel from Dr. J.E. Jackson, dated 6 January 1971 (1 page). This letter basically terminates the proposed project and gives some reasons for that termination. 6 January 1971 COR60: Letter to Neel from Jackson, dated 6 January 1971 (1 page). In it Jackson gives his own views on the project (this appears to be the same document as COR4). 6 June 1971 COR111: A handwritten letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 6 June 1971 (2 pages). More field details. 1972: [1972-3] DOC87: a small handwritten note of a list of people, but the purpose of the note is hard to discern because of poor photocopying. It is dated "For 1972-73". [1972?] DOC88: two pages of notes for research plans (probably 1972 given provenance to COR172 and DOC89) (2 pages). Handwritten notes on different research assistants and work plans. 11 January 1972 COR172 Neel to Ward, Spielman, Migliazza, Li, Sing, and Heuch (Memorandum, 1 page). Introduces DOC 89 to them. 15 January 1972 DOC89: Document entitled "Prospectus for use of Indian data," dated 15 January 1972 (2 pages). Discusses a number of plans for using gathered data. 26 February 1972 COR117: Handwritten letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 26 February 1972 (2 pages). More on his plans for research. 7 March 1972 COR118: Handwritten letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 7 March 1972 (1 page). This is an air-letter that may be the enclosure to DOC29, discussing details of current fieldwork. 17 March 1972 COR114: Handwritten letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 17 March 1972 (1 page). More miscellany about field matters. 21 March 1972 COR113: Letter to Chagnon from Neel, dated 21 March 1972 (2 pages). Discussion of research relations and field matters. 21 March 1972 COR112: Letter to Chagnon from Neel, dated 21 March 1972 (1 page). Discussion of good and bad blood samples. 17 April 1972 COR116: Letter to Neel from Chagnon, dated 17 April 1972 (9 pages). An extensive account of Chagnon's work and frustrations in the field, lots of interesting details. 23 May 1972 COR115: Letter to Neel, Ward, M. Levin, and K Weiss from Chagnon, dated 23 May 1972 (1 page, apparently, no signature at the end). An overview and assessment of ongoing research. 1974: 29 July 1974 DOC79: handwritten document entitled "List of Cluster Assignments," dated 29 July 1974 (2 pages). Has a number of "cluster" names and affiliated villages. Does not look like Neel's writing, but other than that there are no clues as to the author. 1975: 11 August 1975 COR7: Letter to Dr. Donald Coohan, Chief, Division of Communicable Diseases, Michigan Department of Health, from Neel, dated 11 August 1975 (1 page). In it Neel talks about the use of vaccines as "the entr‚e. . . to a large group of somewhat (justifiably) suspicious and reluctant subjects." 1976: 8 November 1976 COR171:Neel to Dr. Richard "Ryk" Ward, Child Development and Retardation Center, University of Washington. Discusses a manuscript Ward sent him and suggests radical changes. Undated: COR108: A handwritten note or letter that is partially obscured, from Chagnon, date unclear (possibly 1970), but in provenance to COR107 and COR109 (1 page). Talking about Neel coming to Ocamo. DOC10: a small handwritten note that has no date and no letterhead, and appears to be signed by Layrisse (1 page). It merely says "[a]gree bring 2000 immunizing doses measles vaccine." (in provenance with early 1968 materials). DOC12: Undated, unattributed article that is in provenance to COR29, and describes the work of the Brother's Brother Foundation. DOC14: a handwritten table entitled "Ocamo Follow-up," undated (1 page). There are numbered individuals, dates with numbers beneath them, and at the bottom a notation: "Mix of previous measles, g.g. inj., vaccination, mild measles." DOC20: Article by Centerwall, with discussions, undated and source unknown (10 pages). A number of discussions about diseases among American Indians. DOC23: Table on "Absorption Tests" undated but enclosed with COR89 (1 page). DOC24: two tables that were enclosed with COR90 (2 pages). DOC25: an accounting of some of the 1968 expedition's expenses (1 page). DOC26: Reimbursement receipt to Neel from funds advanced to Chagnon (1 page). DOC29: an air-mail envelope addressed to Neel from Chagnon with a mail date of 14 March (in provenance with COR113). DOC30: Cryptic hand-written list that is difficult to decipher, no date (1 page). In provenance with COR114. DOC31: Two drafts of a paper by Neel entitled "Ethical Issues Resulting from Prenatal Diagnosis, undated (50 pages, some typed, some short notes). Discussion of his ethical stance on research and "eugenic" issues. DOC34: handwritten draft for DOC31, undated (34 pages). DOC35: Draft of paper entitled "The Genetic Structure of a Tribal Population, The Yanomama Indians, Eleven Blood Group Systems and the ABH-Le Secretor Traits," not dated (14 pages). A paper co- written with Gershowitz, the Layrisses, Chagnon, and Ayres, notes the support of "U.S. Atomic Energy Comm. Grant AT(11-1)-1552. DOC38: small handwritten note with no attribution and no dates, in provenance with DOC37 and COR120 (1 page). A number of almost unreadable scribbles that needs to be examined more carefully. DOC43: Table entitled "Microneutralization Tests with Coxsackie B Viruses," undated (1 page). This is the enclosure for COR126. DOC45: Draft of paper "Ethical Issues Resulting from Prenatal Diagnosis," by Neel, undated (18 pages). This appears to be either the final draft or the working presentation copy. DOC46: Oversized handwritten tables entitled "C7 Antibody titers" and "HI antibody titers" undated and unattributed (10 pages). A very lengthy list of all the major diseases and titers by subject #. DOC47: small handwritten note entitled "Kaufman and Ajello," undated and unattributed (1 page). A list of fungal diseases with a check mark at the bottom. DOC49: handwritten list of numbers with no explanation, undated (in provenance with COR142 and COR28) (3 pages). DOC50: Cryptic partial table, handwritten, no date (2 pages). At the top is a sentence that appears to be partial, from a preceding page that is not with these two. It reads "of those not vaccinated by Roche." The list has two headings: "1) with measles" and "2) without measles." There is also a column headed "antibody status" and most of the subject numbers have no status. DOC55: several handwritten pages (in Spanish?) regarding vaccinations (5 pages). Difficult to decipher, but possible Roche's notes? In provenance with 1968 measles materials. DOC57: Cryptic handwritten note without date or attribution (1 page). Indicates vaccine given at Mavacca in two lots. DOC58: Handwritten note labeled "Dr. Jackson - P.D> - 20 March" without date (1 page). Talks about globulin and has notes on searching for lot number and other things. DOC59: Map and another cryptic note, both undated and unattributed (2 pages). Map shows rivers and movement of multiple diseases. Note page appears to deal with temperatures but a second page companion to it appears to be missing. DOC61: Handwritten note entitled "Cows at Ocamo", undated and unattributed (1 page). Talks about purchases and presence of cows at Ocamo. DOC63: some handwritten notes and a table that are in provenance with COR 143, undated (2 pages). These may be Neel's notes for inclusion of data into the AJE article. DOC65: a collection of long tables on temperatures and other information on the epidemic, undated (6 pages). Discusses temperatures and other symptoms. DOC66: handwritten table on measles tests "after vaccination and after measles," undated (1 page). Lists titers from different villages. DOC67: a treatment of Neel's Science article by Dr. Philip Ashmole (see COR145 and 146), undated (7 pages). A summary of Neel's arguments about evolution, population, and "tribal life." Emphasizes a number of elements, such as warfare. DOC68: Referee's comments for Neel's Science article (6 pages). One referee is very critical of the article from an anthropological stance, the other goes into great length on each section of the manuscript and its faults. The first basically rejects the article, the second advocates heavy revisions. DOC69: small handwritten note signed "RTD," undated (1 page). It appears to refer to another document (see DOC70) which it is in provenance with, and talks about changing some elements of it. DOC73: A document in Spanish (set aside for further examination), undated and unattributed, on the letterhead of the Venezuelan Ministry of Justice. DOC76: Document entitled "Study of Disease Prevalents and Genetic Variation in the Wapishana Indians of Guyana," no submission date, includes the names of Neel, Oliver, and Richard S. Spielman as primary investigators (8 pages). Outlines a plan to the National Scientific Research Council of Guyana to study diseases and populations being acculturated. DOC77: Handwritten questions and notes entitled "Questions" with no date or attribution (2 pages). Discusses admixture and genetic analysis. DOC78: A collection of handwritten tables and accompanying map on allele frequency and admixture, no date or attribution (8 pages). Unclear just when this was written or what it refers to specifically. DOC80: Collection of handwritten data tables on alleles, no date or attribution (7 pages). More tables on various sorts of alleles and aspects of frequency, etc. DOC81: Fragment of manuscript and several tables of information on Yanomama villages (5 pages). The manuscript page talks about defining village clusters, and the accompanying tables (apparently prepared by "Tanis") lists village numbers, size, and sector. Given the sampling dates this had to be written after 1971. DOC82: Collection of hand-written notes of village designations and information, all undated (8 pages). Confusing group of notes on village numbers and names. DOC83: Typed tables labeled "Village Designations - Yanomama," not dated or signed (3 pages). A clean, orderly copy of village names and number designations. DOC85: Map entitled only "Altos Orinocos" with the name "James P. Barker Jr." in the lower right-hand corner (1 page copied into 8 sections). A thorough but undated map of the area, with a number of scribbled comments on different events and landmarks. DOC90: handwritten document entitled "Short list of Indian Projects," undated (5 pages). A number of ideas for using gathered data. DOC91: a series of handwritten notes from meetings and off-the- cuff brainstorming, most undated but some dated between 1966-1968 (36 pages). A variety of materials that are hard to separate, many are just a few scribbled lines, others cryptic lists, but some discuss his ideas and goals in greater detail, especially those that are dated. DOC93: Paper entitled "Provisional Outline Prepared for the Use of the Staff of the WHO Reference Serum Bank at Yale University," by John R. Paul. M.D., Director, undated (31 pages). A detailed discussion of procedures and conditions at the Bank. Found in one of Neel's miscellaneous files. DOC94: Paper entitled "Personal Fierceness and Headmen in Yanomamo Disputes," by Napoleon A. Chagnon, an undated draft for presentation at the 1968 AAA Meetings (34 pages). Chagnon's discussion of a number of separate incidents of disputes and how they were dealt with (or not) by headmen and the significance of this for Yanomami social organization and adaptation. PART III: ANNOTATED SUMMARY OF JAMES NEEL'S FIELD JOURNAL OF 1968 AEC EXPEDITION TO YANOMAMI SECTION I. PRE-FIELD ACTIVITIES AND CONSULTATIONS (Ms. begins p. 35) page date 35 6(?) Jan List of flights, airstrips and sizes of planes needed: 1)Caracas-Cushime (big); 2)Cushime-Santa Maria (small shuttle); 3) +/- ? Flights, Santa Maria-Caracas; 4)Santa Maria-Ocamo (big), ?Cuchime-Esmeralda-Ocamo (small); 5) +/- 5 flights, Ocamo-Caracas (small); 6)Esmeralda-Caracas (big); 7) Emeralda-Caracas (big) 36 7 Jan "In a sense, the expedition is now launched"... at 6(?) PM off for Washington...attending a Workshop on epidemiological Surveys sponsored by the Div. Med. Sci. Of the N.R.C.. Hopefully, some of this will be pertinent to our current program..." 37 8 Jan EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEYS (selected items from N's notes on Wash. Conference) 1. Objectives of genetic studies of pop[ula?]: numbered points include 2)Find new variants; 4)disease connections 9 Jan 2. Sample collection techniques, practical 38 pointers on taking genealogies [end exerpts from conference notes] 39 OUTLINE OF AEC APPLICATION (proposal for renewal of Neel's current grant, due in March shortly after planned return). Exerpts from Neel's outline: "III. Next steps with Indians. No longer descriptive. Testing ground for 1)Mean heterogeneity and relations of genetic taxonomy; 2) Vital statistics; 3) gene flow; 4) Hi(?)tability estimates; 5)Man-pathogen interaction; 6) Attributes of leadership (and reproduction)" (TT boldface) 40 notes for changes in text of USNC/IBP Integrated Program: add Layrisse, J. Wilbert as Directors/ Coordinators 41 11 Jan Flight to NYC rendezvous with Chagnon and Centerwall Take off for Caracas. "This one is about 2x as complicated as the last, and about 10x as complicated as that first trip into the Xavante in 1962. If we are successful--even 70%-- maybe even 80%--will think we have earned a bonus, low-pressure trip of some type." 12 Jan CARACAS. Conference at IVIC: Layrisse, Arends, Chagnon, 42 Migliazza, Centerwall, Neel: Arrange US Air Force flight asistance thru US Embassy; deal with "French Invasion" of Levi-Strauss students, possibly L-S himself, to same Yanomami villages where they plan to work (Neel not happy about this). 43 Program, itinerary for blood, biologicals sampling: "regarding Yanomami, the plan remains unchanged: As many as possible at Santa Maria (+/- 200). Then Patanowatedi (+/- 200) (+, doubtfully, Asadowatedi), then Upper Orinoco (+/- 150), then Padamo (+/- 150), for approximately 700 bloods, and a grand total (with Maks [i.e., Makiritare--TT]) of 950-1,000." 44 13 Jan "Thoughts on Santa Maria Flow Plan (Sanuma)" [schedule of research tasks--TT]: A)Family identification (Migliazza), B) Pix (Ward); C) Adult anthropolmetrics (Ward and recorder); D) Selected dermatics(?) (Ward); E) P.E. [Physical exams--TT] (Centerwall, Ward); F) Dental (Brewer and brother [?TT]); G) Blood (Arends); H) Saliva; I) Urine; [no indexical letter--] inoculations. [Note: names of those to collect samples not indicated for saliva, urine, inoculations; also, an alternative arrow is drawn from dental to inoculations--TT] "FIRST SCHEDULE:" Santa Maria--10; Pate[nowatedi]--10; Ash[adowatedi]--(7?); Upper Orinoco--7; Upper Padamo--7; Esmeralda--4; Slippage--3. Total 41-48 days, Jan 22-March 5=44 days [NB: 1968 was leap year, so 29 days in Jan--TT] 45 13 Jan Caracas, IVIC.Neel reading The Master and Margarita. Remarks on book. 46 Notes on Yanomami language 47 14 Jan Ward coming in through Georgetown [Guyana], passing 1,000 doses of measles vaccine to MAF {Missionary Aviation Fellowship] pilot for transportation to Brazilian mission posts in Roraima. Neel collecting orchids. 48 "THE CHANGING SCHEDULE" [Outline day-by day schedule] Jan 22, 23: Move Jan24, 25: Mak #I (150 bloods) Jan26, 27, 28:ence Turner spent two Jan 29 ,30, 31: Sanuma #I (100 bloods) Feb 1,2,3,4: Sanuma #II (?illegible. no. Bloods) Feb 5,6,7: Move; Mavaca Feb 5 (50 bloods) Feb 8,9,10,11: Ocamo (120 bloods) Feb 12, 13: blank Feb 14, 15: Manavita (?) (70 bloods) Feb 16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,Mar1,2: Patanowatedi (no indication of no. of bloods) Mar 3,4,5,6,7 : Padamo and Upper Orinoco ??, Or out on Mar 3 or 4. 49 15 Jan Caracas/IVIC. Conference with pilot, exped personnel, make above schedule. Conference American embassy, Air attach‚ about help with flights (indeterminate; advice on available commercial flights). Asch arrives, on schedule: team now complete. PM work on AEC application. 50 16 Jan Conference IVIC Roche's office: work out weights of baggage per person. 51 Thoughts on blood sampling, what is adequate sample for testing microdifferentiation? 52 17 Jan OUTLINE NOTES FOR LECTURE DELIVERED AT IVIC: "TRENDS IN POPULATION GENETICS" [exerpts:] "To understand selection must understand environment: Reason for antibody studies". 53 "...polymorphisms arose in primitive populations. Our belief--if we are to understand their function and the meaning of differences between tribes, must go to intensive studies of primitives." 54 "State of health--antibody studies. Virgin for measles, varicella, tuberculosis...antibodies to many other agents...Basic questions in sociological epidemiology 55 Arrange to send samples from all villages to Berghold at IVIC 56 Two tables to summarize Arbo-virus results 57 18 Jan Arrange cooparation with French AEC people, IVIC people associated with them (Roche); also several anthropologists working with Cruxent) 58 19 Jan Neel has "an acute upper respiratory Infection (URI). "Better now than later" [but it doesn't go away for weeks--TT] 59 Impressed with scientific sophistication of French team but "they surely are not prepared for the very difficult field work ahead". 60 20 Jan "The countdown, since I go in tomorrow AM, not the least aided by a beastly URI". Cruxent throws party, at which Eddie Romero, "Commissioner for Indian Affairs", gives news of measles on the lower Ventuari and among the Yanomami and Makiritare of the upper Ventuari, and asks Neel team what they can do about it. "Decision: invite them in also. We will be swarming with Indians if all this comes to pass. And the problem now is not to overcommit our troops at any point.[This note seems ambiguous: "invite WHO in? And if all WHAT comes to pass? And why "swarming with Indians?" TT] SECTION II. FIELD DIARY: DAY-BY-DAY ITINERARY page date place 61 21 Jan Arrive Santa Maria (Makiritare village at Catholic Mission) 62 22 Jan "Plan vaccinations, Neel group to give vaccine, Padre Francisco (chief of mission) to give g.g. Learn THAT there was measles here 5 yrs ago (April 1962) 63 23 Jan "draw bloods, saliva. Pedigrees 25 Jan "Visit Wasa¤a (Makiritare group--sandbar by riverside called Kadianoshodi, don't go into village). Vaccinate under 5's (those unexposed to previous measles). 64 " Wasaña draw bloods on sandbar, return Sta Maria 65 26 Jan History Sta Maria group, conflicts w. Yanomami 66 " " 67 " Popula, vital stats of Sta Maria; list Sanuma villages (one at Sta Maria, others on rivers or near Dojo rapids) Tacada ña 66 (Dojo rapids) Wasai ña 27 (on Wasai river) Cajuda ña 21 Majatadu ña 23 Casuuju ña 33 Jööwötö ña 10 (the village at Santa Maria) Cämmincho ña 33 Jööwötö ña 22 [unclear why this listed twice w different pop figures--TT] Total 235 68 " Neel, Centerwall draw bloods of Sta Maria Makiritare, Migliazza takes pedigree of Sanama village at Sta Maria airstrip (Jööwötö ña). Draw bloods from Sanuma & vaccinate w. gg. 69 " map of Makiritare and Sanuma villages 70 " note on intermarriage Mak--Yano (very little) 71 28 Jan Chajara¤a (Mak. Village, Prot Mission on Orinoco, Mr. Edding). Pedigree, bloods, saliva. Learn of another mission 70 miles away, maybe go there later? Return Sta Maria. 72 29 Jan "Up Rio Erebato to Dojo rapids. Draw bloods, saliva, Phys Exams, anthropometrics, examine teeth. Vaccinate with gg."We've never tried this combination --plus paying, and it's a little much." Return Sta Maria 73 30 Jan Dojo rapids, more bloods, saliva, urines. Vaccina, gg. 74 31 Jan Examine Sanuma from villages Tacada¤a, Irasi¤a, Cajada¤a, Mahatadu¤a, vicinity of Dojo rapids. Blood, saliva. Don't get to villages themselves. Return to Sta Maria. Common phys/genetic traits of Yanomami 75 Notes on Phys Exams 76 1 Feb Return to Dojo rapids, do bloods, P.E. on stragglers. Learn that 20 Yanomami from the distant village of Cusuja¤a were at the air strip village [J""wto¤a] when we came in but took off in fright when they heard we are giving inoculations." "Now definite to make a try for the mission on the Caura...to make up for the rather disappointing take of Yanomami here". 2 Feb "Decide to do anthropometrics on the Maks as part of our 'gene flow' study." 77 3 Feb Simara¤a (Orinoco River Mission, Seely). Mak. Village. 78 4 Feb Cushim‚ airstrip . Then back to Simara¤a, draw bloods 79 5 Feb Cushim‚ airstrip. 79 Take stock of what accomplished in Phase 1: " The good padre's request to do BCG [g.g.] did not help our case" [ref. To P. Juan Francisco of Sta maria Mission]. The measles vaccination--a gesture of altruism and conscience--is more of a headache than bargained for--I would either put this into the hands of the missionaries or place it at the very last. Also, anxious to avoid distracting W.C. [Centerwall] who is pursuing do many things." 80 Plan order of priorities for work in next Phase, at Patanowa-tedi. Concentrate in first 3-4 days on P.E.s, anthropometrics, dentals, bloods. Next, do same to Ashedowa-tedi, to be invited to come to Patanowatedi for the purpose. Also at Patanowatedi we will make our principal collections of biologicals...thus I will get stools and soils while Bill [Centerwall] does P.E.s for 3-4 days; then get blood, saliva, and urine...then inoculate if at all." [TT italics] 81 6 Feb Ocamo "...immediately put to work on sick call. Roche thought he diagnosed a case of measles here some 2 weeks ago and gave Edmonston strain vaccine with no g.g. Coverage. Results: a good no, of reactions, some 4+. Fever of 39-40 C. Really measly rash in some." 82 7 Feb Mavaca. Can't contact, locate Patanowatedi. Consider altering itinerary. 83 I am at this point sufficiently pessimistic that already beginning to wonder how I can possibly prolong my stay. Would be most unfortunate to feel I had to leave just when we began to have Indians in all directions." 84 7 Feb Mavaca. Radio contact: Asch and Dan Shaylor now with Patanowatedi. So plan itinerary accordingly. Ocamo tomorrow for four days to do Ocamo R. villages, then to Patanowatedi, then Shamatari (uncontacted group now visiting with Patanowatedi), then R. Mavaqita, then, if time, R. Padamo. 8 Feb List priorities for Ocamo R. Villages, and separately for Patanowatedi, blood, saliva, urine, P.E.s etc. [Note: Vaccinations not mentioned either list.TT] 85 Ocamo mission, village: brief stop then up Ocamo River to 86 villages (camp by river) 87 9 Feb Yeisiboweitedi. Draw bloods During past three days have developed a severe URI-- almost influenza" [but already had severe URI in Caracas Jan 18. TT] 10 Feb. Wabutewatedi. Draw bloods. Lizot in this village 88 11 Feb Mavaca (return via Ocamo) 89 Digression on problems with airstrip, sending out bloods 90 12 Feb Mavaca."bone-drinking ceremony" 91 13 Feb Mavaca. Visit Makalima-tedi. 92 Mavaca. "My bronchitis is now in my right anxillary sinus. 14 Feb Makalima tedi, Shibariwatedi 15 Feb Shibariwatedi. On radio, hear Rousseau, French exped radio operator, "calling for medicines and gas for Ocamo to deal w. outbreak of measles there, apparently in our name. And our impression was that Air Force was responding. but probably in consequence no Monday plane. So what to do. A quick huddle, and decide to try to meet plane with some bloods, and take off early for Patanowatedi." So, "hectic AM of blood drawing in the village," then return to Mavaca 93 16 Feb Mavaca. Visit Kalohi-tedi and Makalima-tedi. Try for Kr"oaatedi but find they are away so don't go. 94 "Would that this URI had not so knocked me down" (this note immediately followed by reference to "impression of a great deal more illness among Indians this trip than 2 years ago, mostly respiratory. Said to be 5 deaths in Mavaca in past several months, sounding respiratory." 95 Mavaca. New schedule: "Any schedule now is strictly for the birds, but the best guess would be Patanowatedi 16-27 Feb, Padamo 28-29 Feb, 1,2,3 Mar while Asch and Chagnon film at Pat. REVIEW PROGRESS TO DATE: We have now sent out some 650 bloods and saliva, perhaps 50 urines, and have 100 P.E.s, anthropolmetrics, and dentals. With any luck, should reach 1000 specimens, and double the other observations.. In short, believe that despite our trials and tribulations, in the end we will not do too badly." 96 17 Feb Still at Mavaca 97 "MEASLES AT OCAMO" Whole page account written after consultation with French exped at Ocamo. It begins with 23 Jan, diagnosis of Brazilian 12 yr old boy ("atypical rash, high fever) by Roche. Next 5 Feb., 21 yr old Brazilian young man w. "Atypical rash and high fever," but not disgnosed as measles acc to Neel and Centerwall. 98 Mavaca. 2 AM news from Ocamo of outbreak of measles, appeal for g.g., from Comer (French Dr.). So draw up: 99 ALL-ORINOCO PLAN + GG is effective..ony before the rash appears. Accordingly, give gg only to those Indians at Ocamo who were not vaccinated and who are not yet sick with measles. By our calculation this should be +/- 20 people. We are sending 60 cc of gg to them..." +We believe it wise to give depot penicillin to the Indians who are most ill. Went 20 doses of bicillin, all we can spare if we anticipate trouble at mavacca. In this connection, the current epidemic of grippe could interact delteriously with the measles." +Hit the 5 chief portals of entry on the Orinoco: Ocamo, Mavaca, Padamo, Pantanal, Lechosa: Of these, Mavaca: Ctrwall has vaccinated tem Ocamo now will be done by Comer, w. gg we sent Padamo: sent vaccine there w. Missionary 2 days ago Lechosa: will send 2 Mak health wkrs there w vaccine Platanal: "will try to arrange for vaccina at Platanal" +Finally: "Isolate and vaccinate all visitors to any place [that has] vaccine" As Neel finishes this plan, he remembers they had 2 yr old studies of Ocamo w records of "a significant fraction of + responders" (ie measles antibodies), so they could now get "some serial blood studies". So he decides to go personally to Ocamo, taking Chagnon. 100 17 Feb Ocamo. With French team, organize a blood-drawing, gg and penicillin administering team. Note different categories of cases from whom draw bloods "Emotional impact of seeing measles at work in 'almost virgin' group was strong. When you see mother and child equally prostrate, and imagine a whole village down, not too difficult to see why so fatal." 102 Centerwall, the 2 Mak medics get to Lechosa but find village empty, so come back to Mavaca 103 18 Feb Mavaca. One of their guides from the trip to Ocamo now sick, presumably measles. Also fugitives from Lechosa arrive w measles. "So it's here! A race between vaccine and the real McCoy". Also, "another Indian ill with pneumonia, presumably in the wake of the flu outbreak here of about a month ago". 103 19 Feb Go to Platanal intending to vaccinate but find pop has Fled. "In a surge of conscience decided not to take our four exposed Pat guides with us, but to get guides at Platanal. Just before departure, news from Padre Sanchez at Platanal that the Platanal people had [fled]..at the news of the epidemic". [Note:he therefore seems to have decided to take two of the exposed Pat guides with him after all: see below entry for p. 106. TT] 104 20 Feb Leave Platanal for Patanowetedi but can't find it. Stuck in boats on river. Neel uses time to write observations on epidemic, vaccinations: "Believe the spectrum of reaction to disease (or vaccine) was no different in Indian than in non-Indian. This I have now seen with my own eyes...This bears on specific disease resistance vs. general disease resistance,and how infectious disease functions as a selective agent." 105 "For measles story, what do we have? 1)Reaction to Edmonston vaccine 2)time to immunity 3)spectrum of real disease 4)pattern of dispersion by Indians 5)distribution of our vaccine" Worries that their baggage is too heavy and bulky to carry in to Patanowatedi even if they find it: " To me, the only real course now...is to invite as large a group as possible out towhere we are now, make as many anthro-med-genetic observationsas possible, and let Tim and Nap work their way into village for the ethnological film...My chief concern is that if measles broke out in village, we could not get anything out. 106 Might as well take [the trade goods] since measles carriers are with the Pats anyhow...Certain basic principles do come out at times like this...We have such a lab set up behind us--something not all the crew recognizes--that we must get specimens." 107 21 Feb Arrive in Patanowatedi in AM, "and have been vaccinating all afternoon. Hate to do it first, but there is urgency, especially since 2 of the Pats who may have been exposed to that measles case at Mavaca are now here." "Real bit of drama here--we've finally reached the Pats, and it's neck-and-neck to do what we hope to do (resigned to no PEs or anthropometrics...). Tomorrow urine and stools, and Friday bloods and saliva and blood films." 108 22 Feb Patanowatedi. Radio says measles in Padamo 109 23 Feb "We leave early tomorrow AM. Would say these past three weeks represent about 2/3 of what we might have done-- but 1/2 again more than most. 24 Feb return to Mavaca, arrive in evening. At Pat., "saw only one really ill child..Rest of children and adults strong, the picture of good health". 25 Feb Mavaca 110-111 MEASLES VACCINE CHART showing where vaccinated, how many, whether or not used gg Place Date no. doses Patanowatedi 21 Feb 105 Ocamo #1 (Roche) 23 Jan 40* Ocamo #2 24 Upr, lowr B ___villages 13-15,16 Feb 113 (Makalimatedi, Shibaariwatedi) Mavacca Catholic mission 73 podamo area (Missionary) 243 Tama Tama 12 Feb 156 Santa Maria 42 Dojo rapids 14 Seeley Mission 76 Eddings Mission 25 Manaviche villages 18 Feb 122 TOTAL 833 *only Ocamo #1 done without gg cover--all others done with gg 112 25 Feb Mavaca 113 Mavaca. "great variability" of reactions to vaccine: "Did see one vaccine reaction with typical measles rash but little coryze or rhinitis. The impression is of great variability in response. I cannot say the mean is no different from the Caucasian mean, but I can say that the 'total impact' factor probably overshadows whatever mean difference does exist." 114 26 Feb Leave Mavaca, head for Padamo. Begin final (3rd) Phase 115 28 Feb Padamo River villages: Coshirow"tedi (Mission: Roundy). Vaccinations here on 17 Feb--highly febrile reactions yesterday 27 Feb, but complaints began 25 and 26 . These reactions greater than at Barker villages. No actual measles here. Shanama¤a. (Cecil's village; mission here 3 yrs. Pop +/- 70 Yanomami and +/-45 Makiritare). Measles brought here by family that visited Ocamo. Broke out before 10th in one of these family members...By 19th a second wave of 8 cases among his contacts. Cecil picked up vaccine at Mavaca on 13th, vaccinated here on 15, then went to Cashirowatedi and vaccinated on 17th. By 20th 25 cases of fever, at least 20 of them measles. [Neel?] vaccinated a total of 20 Yanomami and 27 Maks, with no measles except for 1 who was vaccinated the 18th, but he had been in contact from 10-17 Feb. Since 22nd additional cases-- by 28th about 30-40 cases 116 29 Feb Shanama¤a (Cecil's village) "in real trouble [with measles outbreak]. Leave there about 4 PM and make a wet, wet night camp...Beautiful Podamo". Yamaheitedi (Paul Dye's mission station, w. 2 small vill.s above it, 12 and 17 pop respect.,45 pop here at stn, all "Yamaheitedi"). Proceed to larger village, 117 Shavalawatedi. Vaccination was done here 19th Feb. Reactions just beginning (first reac: headache 27 Feb, then fever yesterday (28th). Arrive Shawarawa tedi (Dan [Shaylor?]'s village] 12:30 PM. Pop 50, 40 in village, obtain 35 blood samples. Then proceed to small vill., Ohawat-tedi, draw 12 bloods from total 17 people present. A case of measles. "Picture of extreme prostration and marked dehydration. Begin to be convinced of a greater initial reaction." 118 MAP OF PADAMO VILLAGES 119 2 Mar Shanama¤a (Cecil's station) "where immediately caught up in the measles. My impression of its severity increases. Would that we had the necessary documentation, but sure we will squeeze something [i.e., data TT] out... none of 20 vaccinated have disease but all of the 70 non-vaccinated seem in various stages..Of those I have seen (perhaps 40), at least half have signs of bronchopneumonia." 120 2 Mar Cashirowatedi in AM, Esmeralda in PM "We near the end...We'll do all right on blood collection, but the jumbled experience with measles scarcely compensates for loss of Pats..." 121 4 Mar Esmeralda 124 5 Mar Caracas, IVIC
PART IV. TOPICAL INDEX OF SELECTED PAPERS OF JAMES NEEL FROM THE ARCHIVE OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY
The papers listed in this index are numbered and classified (COR for correspondence and DOC for document)correspondingly with their listings in the first two parts of this catalogue: Part I (base list of unordered papers) and Part II (chronological ordering of papers listed in Part I). Neel's field journal (Part III) is indexed in the two catalogue lists (Parts I and II) as DOC 1. In this Topical Index, entries from the field journal are coded DOC 1 and indexed by date and page number of the journal. Note: this topical index is not comprehensive. It does not include all correspondence, documents and field journal entries indexed in the annotated lists comprising Parts I, II, and III. 1. Vaccine 12/67 COR 40 Chagnon(? unsigned) to D. Shaylor (plans to vaccinate indians, "confident that it will work without producing undesirable side effects") 19/12/67 COR 48 DaSilva to Ottati (request 1000 doses measles vaccine for Neel) 9/1/68 COR 6 Centerwall to Brazilian missionaries ["Protocol"] 14/1/68 DOC 1 Outline of AEC Grant Renewal Application. p. 39 11/1/68 DOC 71 List of supplies for Exped,including "1000 doses measles vaccine" (2000 crossed out) 6/5/68 COR 181 Roche to Neel (arrival of ship't of Neel's vaccine) 26/4/68 COR 11 Neel to Wilcox (confirm receipt of gg, "quite aside from the usual humanitarian considerations, serious decimation of the group would mean the loss of a tremendous resource for studies of human biology") 26/4/68 COR 13 Neel to Musser (receipt 2000 doses of vaccine, now being shipped to Venezuela) Query: If 2000 received, why only 1000 sent to Venezuela (according to DOC 7 23/4/68)? Other 1,000 shipped to Brazil? 26/6/70 COR 10 Neel to Wilcox (receipt of gg, how it was used) 11/8/75 COR 7 Neel to Coohan (vaccines as "entree...to large group of somewhat justifiably suspicious and reluctant subjects") 2. Vaccinations as research 17/1/68 DOC 1 "reason for antibody studies" p.52 17/1/68 DOC 1 "...antibody studies. Virgin for measles, varicella, tuberculosis..." p. 54 13/9/68 DOC 95 Salzano, Francisco (grant application to AID).Reason for disease studies 16/4/69 DOC 42 Table of measles antibodies from samples taken in 1969 1/9/73 DOC 1 Black, Francis (proposal to NSF: live attenuated viruses as models of natural viruses) 3. Neel research on disease pressures 28/9/66 COR 138 Neel to Kokko of CDC Sera Bank 17/10/66 COR 139 Kokko to Neel 28/10/66 COR 140 Neel to Kokko 16/11/66 COR 141 Kokko to Neel 29/11/66 DOC 48 List of Yanomami sera sent to CDC Sera Bank; with COR 142 5/12/66 DOC 44 List antibodies, heading: "Dr. Helen Casey" 6/3/67 COR 27 Neel to Ajello (reconstruct pre-contact disease picture of the Indian; fungus samples, antibodies) 6/3/67 COR 134 Neel to Kaufman, Chief of CDC Fungus immunology unit(fungus, antibodies) 10/3/67 COR 57 Neel to Hawkins (disease picture of Y.) 16/3/67 COR 132 Neel to Kaufman (soil specimens with fungus to Ajello) 15/9/67 COR 29 Neel to Hingson (Anesthesiology, Western Reserve) (Request assist immuniza vs. Measles, smallpox, whooping cough, tuberculosis) 12/12/67 COR 20+DOC 8 plan for joint IBP Project including list of diseases to be included in research (measles, whooping cough, tuberculosis, smallpox) 1966-68 DOC 91 Fragmentary notes on brainstorming sessions and meetings, discussing ideas and research goals Undated DOC 47 note headed "Kaufman and Ajello" (specialists on fungal diseases at CDC). List of fungal diseases 8,9/1/68 DOC 1 Notes on Epidemiological Surveys Seminar pp. 37-38 4. Correspondence Helen Casey of CDC 5/12/66 DOC 44 List of antibodies with header "Helen Casey" 31/5/67 COR 129 Neel to Casey (tests for viral antigens) 7/6/67 COR 130 Neel to Casey (test results) 23/10/67 COR 125 Neel to Casey (permission to quote) 8/1/68 COR 25 Casey to Neel (test result for measles antibodies) 15/4/68 COR 24 Neel to Casey (results of 68 exped, research interest of measles epidemic) 22/4/68 COR 122 Casey to Neel (send plasma samples for tests) 1/8/68 COR 120 Neel to Casey (sending more specimens) 26/9/68 DOC 37 Table of HI tests with heading "Sent to Helen Casey..." 26/9/68 DOC 41 Table sent to Casey (specimen numbers, name "T. Vitalino Balthasar" in list) 5. CDC visit to consult about disease studies 30/8/67 COR 28 Neel to Schubert (trip to CDC to consult on disease studies, serology, pre-/post-contact disease impact studies, motality rates) 30/8/67 COR 26 Neel to Casey (Neel trip to CDC to consult on study of "disease picture" of Y.) 27/9/67 COR 126 Casey to Neel (neutralization tests, arrangements for Neel's visit to CDC) 19/10/67 COR 131 Kaufman to Neel (he and Ajello's meeting with Neel at CDC) 7/11/67 COR 124 Casey to Neel (medical precautions for CDC visit) 6. Research plans, itinerary for expedition 2/3/67 COR 67 Neel to Layrisse (discuss nest expedition) 10/3/67 COR 70 Neel to Layrisse (discuss 1967 expedition) 24/4/67 COR 65 Neel to Layrisse (research plans) 30/8/67 COR 77 Neel to Layrisse (plans for 68 expedition) 30/8/67 COR 53 Neel to Layrisse (plans for 68 expedition) 19/9/67 COR 54 Neel to D.Shaylor (plans for 68 expedition) 19/9/67 COR 56 Chagnon to R. Shaylor (plans for 68 expedition) 9/10/67 COR 96 Neel to Layrisse (plans for 68 expedition) 15/11/67 COR 78 Neel to Layrisse (plans for 68 expedition) 21/11/67 COR 37 Neel to R. Shaylor (expedition plans, including immunization: mention of measles?) 11/1/68 DOC 1 "This one is about 2x as complicated as the last, and about 10x as complicated as that first trip into the Xavante in 1962. If we are successful-even 70%--maybe even 80%-- will think we have earned a bonus, low pressure trip of some type". p.41 12/1/68 DOC 1 Itinerary p.43 13/1/68 DOC 1 priority order of research tasks p.44 14/1/68 DOC 1 "the changing schedule" p 48 7/2/68 DOC 1 change itinerary p 84 16/2/68 DOC 1 "New schedule" p.95 17/2/68 DOC 1 "All Orinoco Plan" p. 99 7. Measles epidemic 28/11/67 COR 39 R. Shaylor to Neel (informs measles on Orinoco above Mavaca) 11/12/67 COR 38 D. Shaylor to Neel (informs measles on Orinoco coming down from Brazil) 11/12/67 COR 5 Neel to Layrisse (N. informs L. of measles epidemic in Brazil and requests L. to arrange permission to vaccinate from Venezuelan gov.) 21/12/67 COR 22 Neel to Layrisse (discusses vaccinations, given report of epidemic "on Brazilian side") 9/1/68 COR 6 Centerwall to "whom it may concern" (instructions on vaccinating Yanomami) 10/1/68 COR 15 Centerwall to Black (who they will/won't vaccinate, 1/2 village procedure) 11/1/68 DOC 71 Equipment/shipping list. Under medicine "1000 doses measles vaccine [was 2000 but this crossed out]); no mention of gg]) 20/1/68 DOC 1 News of epidemic on Ventuari from President of Indian Service p 60 15/2/68 DOC 1 hear on radio measles at Ocamo 17/2/68 DOC 1 "Measles at Ocamo" 18/2/68 DOC 1 "Measles at Mavaca."So it's here!" p.103 20/2/68 DOC 1 "For measles story, what do we have"? P 105 29/2/68 DOC 18 "Measles among the Indians", article in Brown Gold by Mrs. Joe Dawson. (Details of measles epidemic) 22/4/68 COR 41 Neel to R. Shaylor (ask for info on temp of reactions and mortality data) 12/6/68 DOC 60 fragment of handwritten note to Neel, no signature: (mortality figures, some popula data but pages missing) 20/6/68 COR 46 Patton (missionary Dr.) to Neel (vaccinations and reactions, use of Neel's 1,000 doses vaccine, Surucucu & Auaris, Brazil) 12/6/68 DOC 60 fragment of handwritten note to Neel, no signature: (mortality figures, some popula data but pages missing) 5/8/68 COR 14 Neel to Patton (mortality in Brazil lower than in Venez) 10/68 (?) DOC 19 collection of articles on epidemic by missionaries (source unknown) 8. Spread of Epidemic after Expedition departure 13/3/68 COR 42 Paul Dye family to Neel (new outbreak at "Monoteri", more died at Shanama¤a) 7/5/68 COR 17 Roundy to Neel (mortality data from Shanama¤a; Measles rampant at Cashawarateri and Yabitawateri, 18 have died, res very sick; measles spread to another village-- Shibariwateri?) 20/5/68 COR 45 R. Shaylor to Neel (4000 vaccine received; 4 teams out vaccinating) 10/6/68 COR 43 Neel to R. Shaylor (exped's work lessened impac of measles) 8/68 DOC 17 Brown Gold July 1968 26 (3). Continuing spread of epidemic into Guaica (Yanomami) are in Venezuela 12/68 COR 62 Roundy to Neel (measles "have reached new location near Brazilian border) 9. Neel--Roche 4/4/68 COR 16 Neel to Roche (ask info about Braz boy "whom you saw with measles") 15/4/68 DOC 6 Neel (?) to Roche (?) note (text of telegram?) asking assurance that Venez gov will accept donation of measles vaccine 19/4/68 DOC 5 Roche to Neel telegram "donation acceptable to our gov"--(NB Isthis what Lindee claimed was Venez gov permission for Jan-Mar 1968 exped?) 22/4/68 COR 50 Neel to Roche (vaccine and gg are on way) 23/4/68 DOC 7 Neel to Roche (telegram: 1000 doses vaccine and gg are being shipped) 6/5/68 COR 181 Roche to Neel (confirm arrival of vaccines 25/4; but R. will use 800 Swartz doses from other source; study shows need to give only 1/3 dose, thus produce less reaction, Venezuelans will proceed on this basis) 10. Vaccinations carried out: lists and tables 2/68 DOC 56 "Table of measles Vaccinations in Feb 68" at Cashirowa teri 22/1/68 DOC 1 Santa Maria vaccina plan p.62 25/1/68 DOC 1 vaccinate under 5's (unexposed) p.63 29/1/68 DOC 1 vaccinating and paying for specimens p 72 4,5/2/68 DOC 51 "Blood tests and Vaccinations in Carona of the Caura river on Feb 4&5 68" 13/2/68 DOC 52 Table of measles vaccina's 13-19/2/68, Bisaasiteri, Carona, and elsewhere 15/2/68 DOC 53 List vaccina's Shanamana, Padamo R. 16/2/68 DOC 54 List vaccina's, head measure'ts at "Bebiwa's village" 17/2/68 DOC 1 vaccinating at Ocamo 25/2/68 DOC 64 Tables and notes on measles epidemic; temp.s, reactions to vaccine 25/2/68 DOC 1 Measles Vaccine Chart: places vaccinated, how many, date, p 110-111 Undated DOC 14 "Ocamo follow-up" Undated DOC 50 fragmentary table, probably about Ocamo, with heading "...of those not vaccinated by Roche" Undated DOC 55 Unsigned handwritten pages in Spanish in provenance 1968 measles materials: Roche's notes? Undated DOC 57 Unsigned handwritten note on vaccine given at Mavaca Undated DOC 65 Tables on temperatures and other data from epidemic Undated DOC 66 Tables on tests "after vaccination and measles" (titres from different villages) 11. Neel's Upper Respiratory Infection 19/6/68 DOC 1 p 58 20/6/68 DOC 1 p 60 8/2/68 DOC 1 p 87 13/2/68 DOC 1 p 92 16/2/68 DOC 1 p 94 12. Yanomami flee vaccinations 1/2/68 DOC 1 p 76 19/2/68 DOC 1 p 103 13. Vaccinations as low priority 5/2/68 DOC 1 p 79 5/2/68 DOC 1 p.80 8/2/68 DOC 1 p 84 21/2/68 DOC 1 p 107 (vaccinate 1st at Pat. Because bought exposed guides) 14. Reactions to vaccine, measles 6/2/68 DOC 1 p 81 17/2/68 DOC 1 p 100 (reac to measles) 25/2/68 DOC 1 p 113 29/2/68 DOC 1 p 117 15. DOW Chemical Correspondence 7/8/70 DOC 13 Kenny to Westerman 4/11/70 COR 1 Jackson to Neel 22/12/70 DOC 2 Jackson (memo discussed with Neel prior to drafting) 23/12/68 COR 2 Jackson to Neel (goes with DOC 2, above: trivalent virus study, Dow's reservations) 30/12/70 COR 3 Neel to Jackson(decline participation in trivalent study; appears identical with COR 59) 6/1/71 COR 4 Jackson to Neel (terminates trivalent proposal, gives reasons: identical with COR 60) 16. Comments on Neel mss. Submitted for publication 31/8/69 COR 149 Black to Neel (Comments on Neel's American Journal of Epidemiology article and idea of "racial susceptibility to measles") 22/8/69 COR 150 Neel to Black (thanks for comments) 3/11/69 DOC 62 Reeferees' comments on AJE paper 17/11/69 COR 143 Fox (Ass't Edditor AJE) to Neel (discuss referees' and his own criticisms of Neel's ms) 5/12/69 COR 144 Neel to Fox (changes made in response to criticisms) Undated DOC 67 Ashmole: discussion of Neel's article, "Lessons from a Primitive People", Science 170 1970, 815-822: points about evolution, population, "tribal life" and warfare. Undated DOC 68 Referees comments on ms. Of Neel's Science article. Two, both very critical. 17. "Half-village" vaccination policy 9/1/68 COR 6 Centerwall to "whom it may concern" (missionaries to whom they sent vaccine) 9/10/68 COR 15 Centerwall to Francis Black 18. Head form, reproductive success, intelligence difference between chiefs and others, genetic basis of leadership 11/2/66 COR 174 Salzano to Niswander 2/5/66 COR 175 " 13/5/66 COR 176 Neel to Salzano 9/1/68 DOC 1 From outline of AEC grant renewal application: heading "attributes of leadership (and reproduction)". p.39 9/12/70 COR 147 Jones to Neel (Jones' theory of intelligence; high intelligence detrimental to species) 8/12/70 COR 148 Neel to Jones ("we are thinking along similar lines"; Neel would like to administer Intelligence tests to "chiefs and non-chiefs" in tribal groups to see if there are "significant differences" We wish to acknowledge the generous and invaluable assistance of Robert Cox, archivist of the APS papers


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