|A few different
methods can be used to deliver PEBBLEs into cells. The
first, shown here, is a Gene Gun. This technique was
developed by biologists to deliver DNA into cells, and
we use it for the PEBBLEs. This is sort of a
"shotgun" approach, where a blast of helium
shoots dried PEBBLEs off a disk, after which they fly
down into the cell culture dish and end up embedded
randomly in the cells. Once the correct pressure and
PEBBLE concentration are found, this method is very
effective for many types of cells.
Schematic of PEBBLE Gene Gun delivery method (top)
and TEM images of stained PEBBLEs in cell thin sections.