II. Sports Related Gambling
Further analysis of the data in Table 2 was conducted regarding student athlete involvement in sports gambling. An in-depth analysis of sports-related gambling was conducted because most sports wagering is illegal and because of the public stance taken by the NCAA against sports-related gambling. A more detailed look appears below.
Sports related gambling
Cullen and Latessa's 1996 study established the benchmark of 25% of male athletes, specifically football and men's basketball student athletes, wager on college sports. Our research suggests a higher prevalence of gambling across all sports.
Table 2 indicates the percentage of gambling on sports and in "sports pools" by male and female student athletes since attending college. By condensing variables, our analysis indicates sports-related gambling by student athletes, an activity banned by NCAA Bylaws, is higher than expected from previous research.
Student Athlete Gambling Activities While Attending College
Percentage Responding "Yes"
|Type of Gambling||All (n=758)||Male (n=460)||Female (n=298)|
|Slot or other gambling machines||40.5||307||42.8||197||36.6||109|
|Play cards for money*||29.7||225||39.1||180||14.4||43|
|Bet on sports*||28.5||216||37.0||170||15.1||45|
|Lottery or numbers||26.5||201||27.8||128||24.2||72|
|Games of skill*||25.7||195||37.0||170||8.1||24|
|NCAA basketball tournament or Super Bowl pool*||22.6||171||30.0||138||11.1||33|
|Bet on horses or other animals*||11.1||84||13.5||62||7.4||22|
|World Wide Web||0.9||7||0.9||4||1.0||3|
|All variables combined into a single variable indicating percentage who have gambled on any of these activities while in college.*||71.9||545||80.0||368||59.1||176|
* = Significant differences between male and female student athletes determined through ANOVA (p < .05)
|Two variables ("have you bet on
sports" and "have you bet in an NCAA basketball tournament pool or picked Super
Bowl squares" for money) were combined into a single variable to obtain a more
accurate indication of the level of sports gambling among student athletes. The new
variable indicates that 34.9% of the entire sample of student athletes gambled on sports
since attending college. However, the level of sports-related gambling among male student
athletes is significantly higher than that of their female peers. Specifically, 45.5% of
male student athletes have gambled on sports since attending college, compared with only
18.5% of female student athletes (p< .001).
It is worth noting that the combination of three variables ("gambling on sports," "gambling on sports pools," and "gambling on games of skill") into a single measure of sports-related gambling increases the percentage of student athletes who gamble on sports. The combination of these three variables reveals that 42.3% of all student athletes, and 56.1% of male student athletes have engaged in this definition of sports-related wagering. The percentage of women involved in sports- related wagering was slightly higher (20.5%).