Resource List

What Is Strategic Environmental Management (SEM)?
SEM and Competitiveness
Implementing SEM
Tools for SEM

Case Studies
Mentor Faculty
Related Web Sites

What Is Strategic Environmental Management (SEM)?

Barrett, Scott. "Environmental Regulation for Competitive Advantage." Business Strategy Review 2, no. 1 (Spring 1991): 1-17.

Elkington, John. "Towards the Sustainable Corporation." California Management Review 36, no. 2 (Winter 1994): 90-100.

Hart, Stuart. "A Natural-Resource-Based View of the Firm." Academy of Management Review 20, no. 4 (October 1995): 986-1,014.

Schot, Johan, and Kurt Fischer. "Introduction: The Greening of the Industrial Firm." In Environmental Strategies for Industry, 3-33. Washington: Island Press, 1993.

Shrivastava, Paul. "The Role of Corporations in Achieving Ecological Sustainability." Academy of Management Review 20, no. 4 (October 1995): 936-960.

Trisoglio, Alex. "International Business and Sustainable Development." Green Globe Yearbook, ed. Helge Bergesen and Georg Parmann, 87-100. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

SEM and Competitiveness

"The Challenge of Going Green." Harvard Business Review 72, no. 13-14 (July- August 1994): 3-14.

Hart, Stuart, and Gautum Ahuja. "Does It Pay to Be Green? An Empirical Examination of the Relationship Between Pollution Prevention and Firm Performance." University of Michigan School of Business Administration Working Paper no. 9550-09. Presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting, U-M, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1994.

Heaton, George, Robert Repetto, and Rodney Sobin. "Transforming Technology: An Agenda for Environmentally Sustainable Growth in the 21st Century." Washington: World Resources Institute, 1991. [To order, call 800/822-0504 or send e-mail to; or see WRI on the Web.]

Hoerner, J. Andrew, Alan Miller, and Frank Muller. "Promoting Growth and Job Creation Through Emerging Environmental Technologies." Research Report of the National Commission for Employment Policy. Washington: NCEP, April 1995.

Jaffe, Adam, Steven Peterson, and Paul Portney. "Environmental Regulation and the Competitiveness of U.S. Manufacturing: What Does the Evidence Tell Us?" Journal of Economic Literature 33 (March 1995): 132-163.

King, Andrew. "Improved Manufacturing Resulting from Learning from Waste." Presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1994.

Management Institute for Environment and Business. "Competitive Implications of Environmental Regulation: A Study of Six Industries." 1994. [To order, call 800/822-0504 or send e-mail to; or see MEB on the Web]

Porter, Michael, and Claas van der Linde. "Green and Competitive." Harvard Business Review 73 (September-October 1995): 120-134.

Walley, Noah, and Bradley Whitehead. "It's Not Easy Being Green." Harvard Business Review 72, no. 11-12 (May-June, 1994): 46-52.

Implementing SEM

Bunge, John, Edward Cohen-Rosenthal, and Antonio Ruiz-Quintanilla. "Employee Participation in Pollution Reduction." Cornell University Center for Advanced Human Resources Studies--- Working Paper 95-15. Ithaca: CAHRS; May 1, 1995. [Available online or from Kim Fritz-Sharpsteen (607/255-9358 or]

Geffen, Donald, and Alfred Marcus. "Pollution Prevention --- Overcoming Barriers to Further Progress." Ann Arbor: NPPC, 1998. [Available as part of this compendium.]

Frankel, Carl. "Four Top Guns." Tomorrow 4, no. 4 (October/December 1994): 10- 15.

Gladwin, Thomas. "The Meaning of Greening: A Plea for Organizational Theory." In Environmental Strategies for Industry, ed. Johan Schot and Kurt Fischer, 37-61. Washington: Island Press, 1993.

Hoffman, Andrew. "Organizational Change and the Greening Process: A Case Study of the Amoco Corporation." Total Quality Environmental Management 4, no. 1 (Fall 1994; New York: Executive Enterprises).

Rothenberg, Sandra, James Maxwell, and Alfred Marcus. "Issues in the Implementation of Proactive Environmental Strategies." Business Strategy and the Environment, Part 4 (Winter 1992-93; Bradford, England: European Research Press): 1-12.

Shanely, Agnes. "Pollution Prevention Has a Long Way to Go." Chemical Engineering 100, no. 11 (November 1993): 30-43.

Tools for SEM

Pollution Prevention

Bierma, Thomas, and Francis Waterstraat. Pollution Prevention and Business Management: Curricula for Schools of Business and Public Health. Champaign: Illinois Hazardous Waste Research Information Center, 1995. [Available from the publisher. Modules 1-3 plus the instructor's Manual (TR-024) are cost $5; a package of supplemental readings (TR-025) costs $10. To order, call 217/333-8940 or e-mail]

Freeman, Harry, Teresa Harten, Johnny Springer, Paul Randall, Mary Ann Curran, and Kenneth Stone, "Industrial Pollution Prevention: A Critical Review." Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 42, no. 5 (May 1992): 618-656.

"Pollution Prevention: A Guide to Program Implementation." Champaign: Illinois Hazardous Waste Research and Information Center, 1993. [Available free from the publisher---call 217/333-8940 or e-mail]

Financial Analysis for P2

American Institute for Pollution Prevention. A Primer for Financial Analysis of Pollution Prevention Projects. EPA/600/R-93/059. Washington: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1993. [Available free from NCEPI: call 800/490-9198 or send a fax to 513/489- 8695.]

Environmental Accounting

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. An Introduction to Environmental Accounting As A Business Management Tool. EPA/742/R- 95/001. Washington: U.S. EPA, 1995. [Available free from NCEPI: call 800/490-9198 or send a fax to 513/489-8695.]

Environmental Impact Assessment

Pratt, Gregory, Paul Gerbec, et. al. "An Indexing System for Comparing Toxic Air Pollutants Based Upon Their Potential Environmental Impacts." Chemosphere 27, no. 8 (1993): 1,359-1,379.

Total Quality Environmental Management

Dambach, Barry F., and Braden R. Allenby. "Implementing Design for Environment at AT&T." Total Quality Environmental Management 4, no. 3 (Spring 1995): 51-62.

President's Commission on Environmental Quality, Quality Management Subcommittee. Total Quality Management: A Framework for Pollution Prevention. Washington: PCEQ, January 1993.

Woods, Sandra. "Making Pollution Prevention Part of the Coors Culture." Total Quality Environmental Management 3, no. 1 (Autumn 1993): 31-38.


Klafter, Brenda, et. al. "Environmental Benchmarking: AT&T and Intel's Project to Determine the Best in Class Corporate Pollution Prevention Programs." Corporate Quality/Environmental Management III (Spring 1995): 37-44.

Design for Environment

Keoleian, Gregory, and Dan Menerey. "Sustainable Development by Design: Review of Life Cycle Design and Related Approaches." Air and Waste 44 (May 1994): 645-667.

Life Cycle Analyses

Allen, David, and Kirsten Sinclair Rosselot. "Pollution Prevention at the Macro Scale: Flows of Wastes, Industrial Ecology, and Life Cycle Analyses." Waste Management 14, no. 3- 4 (1994): 317-328.

Hunt, Robert, Jere Sellers, and William Franklin. "Resource and Environmental Profile Analysis: A Life Cycle Environmental Assessment for Products and Procedures." Environmental Impact Assessment Review 12 (1992): 245-269.

Klannen, Robert, and Noel Greis. "Managing Environmental Improvement Through Product and Process Innovation: Implications of Environmental Life Cycle Assessment." Industrial Crisis Quarterly 7, no. 4 (1993).

Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing

Sarkis, Joseph. "Manufacturing Strategy and Environmental Consciousness." Technovation 15, no. 2 (1995): 79-97.

Green Marketing

Westley, Frances, and Harrie Vredenburg. "Strategic Bridging: The Collaboration Between Environmentalists and Business in the Marketing of Green Products." Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 27, no. 1 (March 1991) 65-90.

Eco-Integrated Portfolio Analysis

Ilinitch, Anne, and Stefan Schaltegger. "Eco-Integrated Portfolio Analysis: A Strategic Tool for Managing Sustainably." Journal of Long-Range Planning 28, no. 2 (April 1995): 29- 38.

Schaltegger, Stefan, and Andreas Sturm. "Eco-Controlling: An Integrated Economic Ecological Management Tool." In Green Business Opportunities, ed. Dominik Koechlin and Kaspar Muller. London: Pitman Publishing, 1993.

Case Studies

Creating Value With Environmental Strategies and Structures

Koppell, Carla. "Pioneer Hi-Bred International: Developing an Environmental Statement and Strategy" (1992). Case 9-593-045. [Available from
Harvard Business School Publishing.]

Prewitt, Edward. "Laidlaw Environmental Services" (1993; rev. August 16,1994). Case 9-794- 016. [Available from Harvard Business School Publishing.]

Creating Value Through Environmental Practices

Ahearn, James, Harry Fatkin, and William Schwalm. "Case Study: Polaroid Corporation's Systematic Approach to Waste Minimization." Pollution Prevention Review (Summer 1991): 257-271.

Crown Cork & Seal Company, Inc. "Source Reduction Project in Plant #23." Faribault, MN: CCSC, 1993. [Available from the company: 612/334-3388.]

Murray, Fiona. "Xerox: Design for the Environment" (1993; rev. May 4, 1995). Case 9-794-022. [Available from Harvard Business School Publishing.]

Prewitt, Edward. "Allied-Signal: Managing the Hazardous Waste Liability Risk" (1992). Case 9- 793-044. [Available from Harvard Business School Publishing.]

Stark, Richard. "Polaroid: Managing Environmental Responsibilities and Their Costs" (1993; rev. April 21, 1994). Case 9-194-052. [Available from Harvard Business School Publishing.]

Upton, David. "McDonald's Corporation 1992 Operations, Flexibility and the Environment" (1992). Case 9-693-028. [Available from Harvard Business School Publishing.]

Zosel, Thomas. "Case Study: How 3M Makes Pollution Prevention Pay Big Dividends." Pollution Prevention Review (Winter 1990-91): 67-73.

Creating Value With New Products and Changes in Business Portfolios

Jankus, Mark. "ARCO Solar, Inc." In Business and Society: Strategy, Ethics, and the Global Economy, by A. Marcus, 390-403. Chicago: Irwin Press, 1995.

Marcus, Alfred. "New Product Development at General Motors." In Business and Society: Strategy, Ethics, and the Global Economy, 421-431. Chicago: Irwin Press, 1995.

Marcus, Alfred, and Donald Geffen. "Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) and Ethanol." In Business and Society: Strategy, Ethics, and the Global Economy, 463-473. Chicago: Irwin Press, 1995.

Matheson, Andrew. "Renewable Energy in the United States" (1993; rev. May 4, 1995). Case 9-794-087. [Available from Harvard Business School Publishing.]

Vietor, Richard H. K., and Forest Reinhardt. Business Management and the Natural Environment. Cincinnati: South-Western Publishing Co., 1995. [700 pp.; $45. To order, call 800/543-0487 or fax 513/527-6235.]

Willis, Vincent. "Archer Daniels Midland" (1992). Case 9-593-028. [Available from Harvard Business School Publishing.]

Mentor Faculty

Thomas Gladwin
Stern School of Business
44 West 4th Street
New York, NY 10012-1126

Stuart Hart
Kenan-Flagler Business School
University of North Carolina
Campus Box 3490, McColl Building
Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3490

Anne Illinitch
Kenan-Flagler Business School
University of North Carolina
Campus Box 3490, McColl Building
Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3490

Alfie Marcus
Strategic Management and Organization
Carlson School of Management
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, MN 55455

Michael V. Russo
Management Department
Lundquist College of Business
University of Oregon
Eugene, OR 97403-1208

Stefan Schaltegger
Center of Economics and Business Administration (IVW-WWZ)
University of Basel, Petersgraben 51
CH - 4051 Basel, Switzerland
(+ 41 - 61) 267 - 33 60; Fax: (+ 41 - 61) 267 - 33 40

Paul Shrivastava
Howard I. Scott Professor of Management
Bucknell University
Lewisburg, PA 17837

Mark Starik
School of Business and Public Management
The George Washington University
Washington, D.C. 20052

Richard Vietor
Harvard Business School
Morgan Hall 285
Boston MA 02163

Related Web Sites

Professor Paul Shrivastava's course syllabus is imaginatively formatted. Includes assignments and a resource page with links to online articles, databases, news services, and related websites.

Professor Stefan Schaltegger's syllabus for "Corporate Environmental Accounting and Controlling," taught at the Norwegian School of Management.

Academy of Management Online has information on the AOM's divisions, placement, publications (such as Academy of Management Review), members, and listservs.

World Resources Institute's online Annotated Guide to environmental management and sustainability teaching resources for business professors. Roughly 200 cases published by WRI, Darden School of Business, Harvard Business School, the NPPC, and more are listed. Case studies are searchable by publisher and by subject; abstracts and o rdering information are included.

Business for Social Responsibility provides "assistance to companies seeking to implement policies and practices which contribute to the long-term, sustained and responsible success of their enterprises and which fairly balance the competing claims of key stakeholders, their investors, employees, customers, business partners, communities, and the environment."

Sustainable Business Network lists opportunities for investors and partners, distributors and licensees, and capital/contracts.

World Business Council on Sustainable Development is "a coalition of 125 international companies united by a shared commitment to the environment and to the principles of economic growth and sustainable development."

To add to this List

If you know of any articles, books, people or organizations that should be included in this list, please e-mail the complete citation or information to, and we will update this Resource List.
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last revised: March 1998.