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1. The concept of Achnanthes biasolettiana (Kütz.) Grunow carried at the Center for Great Lakes and Aquatic Sciences (formerly the Great Lakes Research Division) was based on Van Heurck 1880-1881. The entities assigned to Achnanthes biasolettiana would be best associated with Lange-Beralot and Krammer's Achnanthes rosenstockii Lange-Bert. in Lange-Bertalot and Krammer 1989. Bukhtiyatova and Round (1996) based Psammodictyon abundans fo. rosenstockii on Lange-Bertalot and Krammers's Achnanthes rosenstockii. The nomenclatural changes are noted for the morphological entity named Achnanthes biasolettiana in publications originating from the Center for Great Lakes and Aquatic Sciences.
2. Lange-Bertalot (1993) has synonymized Achnanthes gracillima (Meister) Mills non Hustedt 1927. Our speciem is identified in reference to the Hustedt concept emended by Foged. Hence the synonymy proposed by Lange-Bertalot is not included here.
3. Simonsen (1987) discusses the basis for transferring Eucconeis lapponica Hust. to Achnanthes quadrataera (Østrup) Möller ex Foged. Lange-Bertalot in Lange-Bertalot and Krammer (1989) suggests Achnanthes lapponica (Eucocconeis lapponica) be transferred to Achnanthes laevis var. quadratarea (Østrup) Lange-Bert. in Lange-Bert. & Krammer. Lange-Bertalot also suggested Achnanthes lapponica var. ninckei be transferred to Achnanthes laevis var. ninckei (H. Guermer & Mang.) Lange-Bert. in Lange-Bert. & Krammer. Round, Crawford and Mann (1990) suggested Eucocconeis be considered a valid genus closely related to both Achnanthidium and Cocconeis. We retain the Eucocconeis designation pending further investigation into this little studied, complex group.
4. The citation Psammothidium levanderi (Hust.) Czarn. in Czarn. & Edlund is an error in Bukhtiyarova and Round 1996. Psammodictyon was erected in 1996 and Czarnecki and Edlund effected the change to Achnanthidium in 1995.
5. Lange-Bertalot in Lange-Bertalot & Krammer (1989) place Achnanthes sublaevis Hust. in synonymy with Achnanthes ventralis (Krasske) Lange-Bert. in Lange-Bert. & Krammer.
6. Amphora hemicycla Stoermer and Yang
The original publication of this name has in the protologue Amphora hemycyla with the plate legend having Amphora hemicycla. Stoermer (1980)used Amphora hemicycla suggesting this is the intended name. Support for this argument is the plate legend and the habitat description of the taxon being primarily benthic in the protologue. It is suggested the original publication contains an orthographic error and the proper spelling of the specific epithet should be hemicycla not hemicyla. (Another interpretation for this may be hemicyla is not a proper word and subsequently needs to be corrected).
7. Krammer and Lange-Bertalot (1985) propose Amphora submontana Hust. as asynonym of Amphora montana and cite their synonymy decision in 1986. Simonsen (1987) claims the wrong slide (i.e. specimen) was used for the decision. Lange-Bertalot and Krammer (1987) acknowledge the correct Hustedt type and maintain their synonymy. The resolution of this problem requires careful examination of the Hustedt and Krasske types along with other collections to determine the variablity existing within the taxa to determine whether there are two distinct taxa or one taxon with a degree of variability.
8. This transfer has not been made by the authors indicated, neither is the transfer legitimate as Anomoeoneis sphaerophora is the type of Anomoeoneis.
9. In the Krammer and Lange-Bertalot Bacillariophyceae (1986, 1988, 1991a, 1991b) the minor genera in the Fragilariaceae (i.e. Hannaea) are combined into Fragilaria. We prefer to keep the classical smaller genera along with the modern approach.
11. The original list (Stoermer and Kreis 1978)had Fragilaria minuscula Grunow. Williams and Round (1987) created a new combination Fragilaria miniscula (Grunow in Van Heurck) with the basionym Synedra miniscula Grunowin Van Heurck. We have been unable to determine if our record is conspecific with the synonymy of Williams and Round.
12. Krammer & Lange-Bertalot consider Fragilaria vaucheriae and its varities to be Fragilaria capucina.
13. Lange-Bertalot & Reichardt in Lange Bertalot 1993 consider Gomphonema acuminatum var. turris (Ehrenb.) Cl. sensu Fricke to be Gomphonema contraturris Lange-Bert. & Reichardt. The application of this synonymy to the Great Lakes specimens needs further investigation.
14. Reichardt and Lange-Bertalot (1991) consider Gomphonema intricatum to be Gomphonema dichotomumKütz. This is also suggested in Krammer and Lange-Bertalot (1991a, p. 416).
15. Reichardt and Lange-Bertalot (1991) consider Gomphonema intricatum var. pumila to be Gomphonema pumilum (Grunow) Krammer & Lange-Bert. This is also suggested in Krammer & Lange-Bertalot (1991a, p. 416).
16. Reichardt & Lange-Bertalot (1991) consider Gomphonema intricatum var. vibrio to be Gomphonema vibrioides Krammer & Lange-Bert.
17. In Patrick & Reimer (1975) Gomphonema
subclavatum var. mexicanum (Grunow) R.M.Patrick is included and the name
is credited as having been publilshed in Hohn (1961). In Hohn (1961) the
name appears only in a list. There is no written description or any
indication that it is a new variety. The name is invalidly published
according to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et
18. The synonymy reported in the original list which had Gyrosigma kuetzingii as a synonym of Gyrosigma spencerii (Stoermer and Kreis 1978) is incorrect according to Sterrenberg (1995). The synonymy is incompatable with the taxon bearing the superfluous and illegitimate name G. spencerii (Sterrenburg 1995).
19. Lange-Bertalot (1993) has proposed
Hantzschia amphioxys (Ehrenb.) Grunow pro parte to be Hantzschia
abundans. In order to apply this synonymy re-examination of the Great Lakes records needs to be conducted.
20. Melosira crenulata (Ehrenb.) Kütz. and Melosira crenulata var. tenuis Kütz. present problems of interpretation. These are old names which by contemporary standards were dumping grounds for Melosira specimens. Records at the Academy of Natural Science of Phildelphia Diatom Herbarium demonstrate the problem. Each of the Academy's records have samples associated with them so that verification can be made. Among the many records for Melosira crenulata there are seven different Melosira taxa listed in synonomy for various collections. Until we are able to examine the Great Lakes collections on which the M. crenulata records were based it would be most prudent to leave the names as they stand without attempts to suggest synonyms.
21. This combination comes from Krammer and Lange-Bertalot (1991a, p. 14) but R. M. Crawford has not made the transfer (personal communication, Crawford).
22. Lange-Bertalot (1993) places Navicula cari Ehrenb. sensu Hustedt into his manuscript name Navicula cariocincta Lange-Bertalot. This synonymy is an attempt to clarify a taxonomic problem in this group of Navicula; however, it only adds to the confusion. The name Navicula cariocincta does not meet the criteria for valid publication (Greuter et al. 1994).
23. In order to apply the synonymy proposed by Krammer & Lange-Bertalot (1986) for Navicula hustedtii fo. obtusa a thorough examination of the taxa Navicula latersotrata Hust., Navicula hustedtii fo. obtusa Hust., Navicula hustedtii fo. japonica Hust., and Navicula absoluta Hust. needs to be conducted.
24. Krammer & Lange-Bertalot (1986) have synonymized the Navicula kotschyi Grunow sensu Hust. non Grunow (Hustedt 1930) with Navicula pseudokotschyi Lange-Bert. There is sufficient difference between Navicula kotschyi Grunow sensu Hust. non Grunow and Navicula kotschyi Grunow to warrant caution in placing the synonymy in the list. We have not been able to verify the record of N. kotschyi Grunow with a reference specimen to ascertain which concept was employed at the time of identification.
25. Lange-Bertalot (1980) demonstrated
Navicula lanceolata sensu Agardh, Navicula lanceolata Agardh sensu Kütz.
Navicula lanceolata Agardh sensu Ehrenb. and Navicula lanceolata Agardh
sensu Hust. to be three different species.
26. It is unlikely the record of Navicula longirostris is correct as the questionable transfer of N. longirostris to Proschkinia would suggest a marine diatom in the Great Lakes.
27. Van Landingham 1975 suggested Navicula stauroptera var. parva (Ehrenb.) Grunow to be a synonym of Pinnularia parva (Ehrenb.) Greg. This suggestion is not tenable based on original illustrations of the taxa. Navicula stauroptera var. parva (Ehrenb.) Grunow is weakly capitate with a stauroid central area reaching the margin of the valve and striae which are radiate at the center and convergent at the poles while Pinnularia parva (Ehrenb.) Greg. has rounded ends, a small central area which does not extend to the margin and striae radiate throughout the valve. Based on the valve outline, strial pattern and central area the two taxa do not appear to be similar. Navicula stauroptera var. parva (Ehrenb.) Grunow appears to be a Pinnularia but does not appear to be Pinnularia parva as VanLandingham suggests. Resolution of this problem requires examination of the type specimens.
28. The synonomy suggested by Van Landingham 1975 is untenable. O'Meara's illustration of Navicula termes does not resemble Ehrenberg's 1841(1843) illustrations of Pinnularia termes. Although Ehrenberg's description is brief his illustration suggests a specimen with striae crossing the valve face while O'Meara's illustration has striae at the margin. The outlines are only superficially similar. Resolution of this problem requires investigation of the type specimens.
29. Our record of Navicula tumida Wm. Sm. appears to be a literature record as record of this taxon has not been located in the Center archives. It was listed in the first checklist (Stoermer and Kreis 1978). At that time the synonymy of Navicula anglica was presented. This should not be considered an orthographic error noting Navicula tumida Wm. Sm. is not to be confused with Navicula tumida Bréb. ex Kütz. Smith (1853) named a freshwater diatom from Bramley near Guildford, Navicula tumida. Navicula tumida Breb. ex Kutz. has been long associated with Scoliopleura and Mann in Round Crawford and Mann (1990) erected the genus Scolioneis with the type species Navicula tumida Breb ex Kutz. Hence the two should not be confused.
According to Krammer and Lange-Bertalot 1986 the systematics and nomenclature of the species complex comprising Navicula dicephala, Navicula elginensis, Navicula anglica and Navicula exigua is exceedingly complicated. Unfortunately their work has done little to uncomplicate the problem.
Krammer and Lange-Bertalot (1985) state on p. 90 that Navicula tumida is synonymous with Navicula anglica and Navicula elginensis. Then in 1986 Kammer and Lange-Bertalot state on p. 136 that Navicula tumida Wm. Sm. non Breb. ex Kutz. is synonymous with Navicula elginensis (Greg.) Ralfs in Pritchard and on p. 167 Navicula tumida Wm. Sm. sensu Grunow is synonymus with Navicula pusilla Wm. Sm. In both 1985 (p. 86) and 1986 (p. 137) Krammer and Lange-Bertalot state that Navicula anglica Ralfs sensu Hustedt 1930 is a new taxon, Navicula pseudanglica, and Navicula anglica Ralfs is synonymous with Navicula elginensis (Greg.) Ralfs (1985 p. 55 and 1986 p. 136).
This would lead us to the conclusion that our Navicula tumida Wm. Sm. and its suggested synonym Navicula anglica Ralfs should be Navicula pseudanglica Lange-Bertalot because most likely the species concept was based on the Hustedt (1930) presentation rather than that of Ralfs.
Cox (1987) resurrects Placoneis and suggests Navicula pseudanglica Lange-Bertalot for the basionym of Placoneis pseudanglica Cox. Cox (1987) admitting the systematics is confused bases her revision on Lange-Bertalot's interpretation of the nomenclatural history. So our Navicula tumida Wm. Sm. then should be named Placoneis pseudanglica Cox. However, if the identification of Navicula tumida was based on Wm. Smith Smith (1853) and not Hustedt's presentation then Navicula tumida should be Navicula elginensis according to Lange-Bertalot and Placoneis elginensis according to Cox.
It is considered best at this time to leave Navicula tumida Wm. Sm. without assigning a synonym until a specimen is located and examined in light of the recent approaches.
30. Depending on which Hustedt reference is
used (Hustedt 1953, 1959)
Lange-Bertalot in Krammer & Lange-Bertalot (1988) maintains different synonymies.
1953, Nitzschia graciloides = Nitzschia gracilis Hantz.
1959 Nitzschia graciloides = Nitzschia graciliformis Lange-Bert. & Simonsen
31. Bukhtiyarova (1995) proposed a number of nomenclatural changes, a few of which we disagree with. It is our considered opinion that Nitzschia longissima fo. parva is not synonymous with Nitzschia reversa and Nitzschia palea var. tenuirostris is not synonymous with Nitzschia capitellata. Accordingly we have not incorporated these changes to the list.
32. Krammer (1992) transferred Pinnularia interrupta var. crassior (Grunow) Cleve to Pinnularia lindii Krammer. The concept of P. interrupta var. crassior carried at the Center for Great Lakes and Aquatic Sciences (fromerly the Great Lakes Research Division) is more consistent with Pinnularia subrostrata ( A.Cleve) A.Cleve. Records from the Center for Great Lakes and Aquatic Sciences for P. interrupta var. crassior should be considered P. subrostrata, not P. lindii. Without further investigation we refrain from following the synonomy proposed by Van Landingham (1978)for P. subrostrata.
33. These Staruosira designations are not in accordance with the modern usage of Williams & Round 1987. They are from the first checklist (Stoermer and Kreis 1978) and represent literature reports of Staurosira.
34. Krammer suggests Cymbella ventricosa C.Agardh contains the concepts of both Encyonema silesacum (Bleisch in Rabenh.) D.G.Mann in Round, Crawford & Mann pro parte and Encyonema minutum (Hilse in Rabenh.) D.G.Mann in Round, Crawford & Mann pro parte. Accepting Krammer's suggestion requires individual examination of Cymbella ventricosa records to ascertain the appropriate Encyonema designation.
35. The original checklist (Stoermer and Kreis 1978) placed Gyrosigma spenceri var. nodiferum
in synonymy with Gyrosigma nodiferum. Reimer in Patrick and Reimer (1966) created a new combination
Gyrosigma nodiferum based on Gyrosigma spenceri var. nodiferum. Sterrenberg (1994) claims Gyrosigma nodiferum is his
Gyrosigma reimeri. Additionally, Sterrenberg (1994) asserts the concept of Gyrosigma spenceri var. nodiferum (as Gyrosigma nodiferum) in
Krammer and Lange-Bertalot 1986 differs from that of Reimer in
Patrick and Reimer (1966). Gyrosigma nodiferum (Gyrosigma spenceri var. nodiferum) in Krammer and Lange-Bertalot 1986
is more properly Gyrosigma sciotoense while Gyrosigma nodiferum (Gyrosigma spenceri var. nodiferum) in Patrick and Reimer (1966) is Gyrosigma reimeri. Reports prior
to 1966 containing Gyrosigma spenceri var. nodiferum should be examined to determine which concept should apply and reports after 1986 also need re-examination to determine which concept should apply, i.e. Gyrosigma reimeri or Gyrosigma sciotoense.