Empirical/Theoretical Applications  

    Each of the following is a fictional (to my knowledge at least) situation or experiment.  Each situation is somehow related to a study/topic we have covered the last few weeks, which is indicated in parentheses.  What results would you predict for these experiments, based on your knowledge of the studies/topics indicated?  Jot your notes down on this sheet, and feel free to use your book.

1.  A female confederate approaches men at a running track in two conditions: one in which they are jogging and one in which they have been resting for at least 5 minutes after having jogged earlier.  She asks them for directions to a local store.  When they finish their workout and are on the way out, another researcher approaches them and asks them to rate how attractive the female confederate was.  Men in which condition would probably give her higher attractiveness ratings? (Dutton & Aron, 1974).

2.  George is low in self-complexity.  He describes himself with only a few roles, such as "friend" and "son."  Cosmo, on the other hand, is high in self-complexity.  His self-representations are independent and include the roles "inventor," "neighbor," "ladies man," "entrepreneur," and "genius."  What you expect to find if you tracked George and Cosmo's emotions and self-appraisals over a two-week period?  (Linville, 1985).

3.  A researcher, in the pre-ethics board days, gives his subjects tea laced with adrenaline.  He tells one group of subjects that the tea is very caffeinated and might make increase their heart rate and body temperature.  He tells another group that the tea will relax them (it's that nighttime-sleepy-type stuff).  He doesnít tell the third group anything.  He then shows them all a scary movie.  What do you predict for the relative level of self-reported fear among participants in the three conditions?  (Schachter & Singer, 1962)

4.  Take the same set-up from #3, but instead of a movie, this time the researcher asks the college-aged subjects to write a counterattitudinal essay supporting an increase in the drinking age to 21.  This essay should lead to dissonance in the subjects.  What would you predict about the relative level of attitude change among conditions after writing the essay? (Zanna & Cooper, 1974)

5. A group of pre-law students are asked to write a counterattitudinal essay supporting an increase in the drinking age to 21.  After writing it, the students are told they will be participating in a role play.  Half of the subjects are instructed to put on a lab coat for the role play, and the other half put on a judge's robe.  Then all of the subjects' attitudes towards raising the drinking age are measured.  Which group should demonstrate the most attitude change? (self-affirmation theory)

6. Which is more likely to be successful, a sign saying "Absolutely No Parking Here" or "Please Refrain From Parking Here?" (reactance theory)

7.  An advertiser wants to sell a certain type of computer to a college audience.  What might be one central route of persuasion she could try?  What might be a peripheral route she could try?  Finally, how might she use dissonance to change consumers' attitudes?

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