Each of the following is a fictional (to my knowledge
at least) situation or experiment. Each situation is somehow related
to a study/topic we have covered the last few weeks, which is indicated
in parentheses. What results would you predict for these experiments,
based on your knowledge of the studies/topics indicated? Jot your
notes down on this sheet, and feel free to use your book.
1. A female confederate approaches men at a running track in two
conditions: one in which they are jogging and one in which they have been
resting for at least 5 minutes after having jogged earlier. She asks
them for directions to a local store. When they finish their workout
and are on the way out, another researcher approaches them and asks them
to rate how attractive the female confederate was. Men in which condition
would probably give her higher attractiveness ratings? (Dutton & Aron,
2. George is low in self-complexity. He describes himself
with only a few roles, such as "friend" and "son." Cosmo, on the
other hand, is high in self-complexity. His self-representations
are independent and include the roles "inventor," "neighbor," "ladies man,"
"entrepreneur," and "genius." What you expect to find if you tracked
George and Cosmo's emotions and self-appraisals over a two-week period?
3. A researcher, in the pre-ethics board days, gives his subjects
tea laced with adrenaline. He tells one group of subjects that the
tea is very caffeinated and might make increase their heart rate and body
temperature. He tells another group that the tea will relax them
(it's that nighttime-sleepy-type stuff). He doesnít tell the third
group anything. He then shows them all a scary movie. What
do you predict for the relative level of self-reported fear among participants
in the three conditions? (Schachter & Singer, 1962)
4. Take the same set-up from #3, but instead of a movie, this
time the researcher asks the college-aged subjects to write a counterattitudinal
essay supporting an increase in the drinking age to 21. This essay
should lead to dissonance in the subjects. What would you predict
about the relative level of attitude change among conditions after writing
the essay? (Zanna & Cooper, 1974)
5. A group of pre-law students are asked to write a counterattitudinal
essay supporting an increase in the drinking age to 21. After writing
it, the students are told they will be participating in a role play.
Half of the subjects are instructed to put on a lab coat for the role play,
and the other half put on a judge's robe. Then all of the subjects'
attitudes towards raising the drinking age are measured. Which group
should demonstrate the most attitude change? (self-affirmation theory)
6. Which is more likely to be successful, a sign saying "Absolutely
No Parking Here" or "Please Refrain From Parking Here?" (reactance theory)
7. An advertiser wants to sell a certain type of computer to a
college audience. What might be one central route of persuasion she
could try? What might be a peripheral route she could try?
Finally, how might she use dissonance to change consumers' attitudes?
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