Chapter Study Guide

Chapter 1:  Introduction
Chapter 2:  Theories
Chapter 3:  Heredity and Environment
Chapter 4:  Prenatal Development and Birth
Chapter 5:  The First Two Years: Biosocial Development
Chapter 6:  The First Two Years: Cognitive Development
Chapter 7:  The First Two Years: Psychosocial Development
Chapter 8:  The Play Years: Biosocial Development
Chapter 9:  The Play Years: Cognitive Development
Chapter 10:  The Play Years: Psychosocial Development
Chapter 11:  The School Years: Biosocial Development
Chapter 12: The School Years: Cognitive Development
Chapter 13: The School Years: Psychosocial Development
Chapter 14:  Adolescence: Biosocial Development
Chapter 15: Adolescence: Cognitive Development
Chapter 16: Adolescence: Psychosocial Development
Chapter 17: Early Adulthood: Biosocial Development
Chapter 18: Early Adulthood: Cognitive Development
Chapter 19: Early Adulthood: Psychosocial Development
Chapter 20: Middle Adulthood: Biosocial Development
Chapter 21: Middle Adulthood: Cognitive Development
Chapter 22: Middle Adulthood: Psychosocial Development
Chapter 23: Late Adulthood: Biosocial Development
Chapter 24: Late Adulthood: Cognitive Development
Chapter 25: Late Adulthood: Psychosocial Development
Epilogue: Death and Dying


  Chapter 1:  Introduction

  1. Define the study of human development, and identify five characteristics of the lifespan perspective.
  2. Identify and describe the three domains of human development.
  3. Describe the ecological model of human development, and explain how this approach leads to an understanding of the overlapping contexts of development.
  4. Discuss the three broad contexts that affect development throughout the lifespan.
  5. List and describe the basic steps of the scientific method.
  6. Identify several controversies that echo throughout the study of development.
  7. Describe scientific observation and correlation as research strategies, noting at least one advantage (or strength) and one disadvantage (or weakness) of each.
  8. Describe experiments, surveys, and case studies, noting at least one advantage (or strength) and one disadvantage (or weakness) of each.
  9. Describe the three basic research designs used by developmental psychologists.
  10. Briefly summarize some of the ethical issues involved in conducting research with human subjects.


  Chapter 2:  Theories

  1. Define developmental theory, and describe how developmental theories help explain human behavior and development, noting the differences among grand theories, minitheories, and emergent theories.
  2. Discuss the major focus of psychoanalytic theories, and describe the conflicts that occur during Freud's psychosexual stages.
  3. Describe the crises of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, and contrast them with Freud's stages.
  4. Discuss the major focus of learning theories, and explain the basic principles of classical and operant conditioning.
  5. Discuss social learning theory as an extension of learning theory.
  6. Identify the prime focus of cognitive theory, and briefly describe Piaget's periods of cognitive development.
  7. Discuss the process that, according to Piaget, guides cognitive development.
  8. Identify the major criticisms and contributions of each of the grand theories of development.
  9. Discuss the basic ideas of Vygotsky and the sociocultural theory of development.
  10. (Changing Policy) Explain the nature-nurture controversy, particularly as it pertains to homosexuality.
  11. Discuss the basic ideas of epigenetic systems theory.
  12. Summarize the contributions and criticisms of the major developmental theories, and explain the eclectic perspective of most contemporary developmentalists.
  13. (In Person) Discuss the ethology of infant social instincts and adult caregiving impulses.


  Chapter 3:  Heredity and Environment

  1. Describe the process of conception and the first hours of development to the zygote.
  2. Identify the mechanisms of heredity, and explain how sex is determined.
  3. Discuss genetic continuity and diversity, and distinguish between monozygotic and dizygotic twins.
  4. (Changing Policy) Discuss age-related changes in the sex-ration and whether there should be a social policy to regulate sex selection of children.
  5. Differentiate genotype from phenotype, and explain the polygenetic and mutlifactorial nature of human traits.
  6. Explain the additive and nonadditive patterns of genetic interaction, and give examples of the traits that result from each type of interaction.
  7. Discuss X-linked genes in terms of genotype and phenotype, and explain the concept of genetic imprinting.
  8. Explain how scientists distinguish the effects of genes and environment on development.
  9. Identify some environmental variables that affect genetic inheritance, and describe how a particualr trait, such as shyness (inhibition), might be affected.
  10. (A Lifespan View) Discuss the interaction of genes and environment in the development of alcoholism.
  11. (Research Report) Explain the major methods of prenatal diagnosis, noting the advantages of each.
  12. Describe the most common chromosomal abnormalities, focusing on abnormalities involving the sex chromosomes.
  13. Identify two common genetic disorders, and discuss the relative incidence of dominant and recessive genetic disorders.
  14. (In Person) Describe four situations in which couples should seek genetic testing and counseling.


  Chapter 4:  Prenatal Development and Birth

  1. Describe the significant developments that occur during the germinal period.
  2. Describe the significant developments that occur during the period of the embryo.
  3. Describe the significant developments that occur during the period of the fetus.
  4. (In Person) Describe the fetus's various responses to its immediate environment (the womb).
  5. Define teratology, and discuss several factors that determine whether a specific teratogen will be harmful.
  6. Identify several teratogens, focusing on psychoactive drugs; describe their effects on the developing embryo or fetus; and explain what can be done to reduce the risks posed by these teratogens.
  7. (Changing Policy) Discuss several protective steps that may moderate the risk of drug damage.
  8. (text and A Lifespan View) Distinguish among low-birthweight, preterm, and small-for-gestational-age infants, and identify the causes of low birthweight, focusing on the relationship of poverty to low birthweight.
  9. Describe the normal process of birth, specifying the events of each stage.
  10. Describe the test used to assess the newborn's condition at birth.
  11. Discuss the importance of medical attention and the question of medical intervention.
  12. Explain the causes of cerebral palsy, and discuss the special needs of high-risk infants.
  13. (text and Research Report) Explain the concept of parent-newborn bonding and what extensive research has shown regarding boding in humans.


  Chapter 5:  The First Two Years: Biosocial Development

  1. Describe the size and proportions of an infant's body, including how they change during the first 2 years and how they compare with those of an adult.
  2. Identify risk factors and possible explanations for sudden infant death syndrome.
  3. (text and A Life-Span View) Discuss the major reason for improvement in the survival rates of young children today.
  4. Describe the ways in which the brain changes or matures during infancy.
  5. Discuss the role of experience in brain development.
  6. Describe the basic reflexes of the newborn, and distinguish between gross motor skills and fine motor skills.  
  7. Describe the basic pattern of motor-skill development, and discuss variations in the timing of motor-skill acquisition.  
  8. Distinguish between sensation and perception, and describe how and why habituation is used in research on infant perception.
  9. Describe the extent and development of an infant's perceptual abilities in terms of the senses of vision and hearing.
  10. (text and Research Report) Identify the cause of most mild hearing losses in infants, and discuss chronic otis media, focusing on its potential development consequences and treatment.
  11. Describe the extent and development of an infant's perceptual abilities in terms of the senses of taste, smell, and touch.
  12. Describe the nutritional needs of infants.
  13. (text and Changing Policy) Discuss the causes and results of malnutrition and undernutrition in the first years, and describe measures for preventing undernutrition.


  Chapter 6: The First Two Years: Cognitive Development

  1. Explain the Gibsons' contextual view of perception, and discuss the idea of affordances, giving examples of affordances perceived by infants.
  2. Explain how the infant's focus on movement and change enhances sensory and perceptual skills and thus overall cognitive growth.
  3. (text and Research Report) Explain what object permanence is, how it is tested in infancy, and what these tests revealed.
  4. Explain what habituation research has revealed about the infant's ability to categorize.
  5. (text and A Life-Span View) Discuss research findings on infant long-term memory and deferred imitation as well as infants' understanding of causal relationships.
  6. Identify and describe Piaget's first two stages of sensorimotor intelligence.
  7. Identify and describe stages 3 through 6 of Piaget's theory of sensorimotor intelligence.
  8. Describe language development during infancy, and identify its major hallmarks.
  9. Contrast the theories of Skinner and Chomsky regarding early language development, and explain current views on language learning.
  10. (text and Changing Policy) Explain the importance of baby talk, and identify its main features.

Chapter 7: The First Two Years: Psychosocial Development

  1. Describe the basic emotions expressed by infants during the first days and months.
  2. Describe the main developments in the emotional life of the child between 6 months and 2 years.
  3. Discuss the concept of social referencing, including its development and role in shaping later emotions.
  4. Discuss the links between the infant's emerging self-awareness and its continuing emotional development.
  5. Describe the evolution of learning theory regarding personality development.
  6. Describe Freud's psychosexual stages of infant development.
  7. (Changing Policy) Discuss concerns regarding day care, and identify the factors that define high-quality daycare.
  8. Describe Erikson's psychosocial stages of infant development.
  9. (text and Research Report) Discuss the origins and development of temperament as an interaction of nature and nurture, and describe the findings of research on the dimensions of temperament.
  10. Define attachment, explain how it is measured and how it is influenced by context, and discuss the long-term consequences of secure and insecure attachment.
  11. (Research Report) Describe four categories of adult attachment, and discuss how each affects the child's attachment to the parent.

Chapter 8:  The Play Years: Biosocial Development

  1. Describe normal physical growth during the play years, and explain variations in height and weight.
  2. (Research Report) Describe changes in eating habits during the preschool years.
  3. Discuss brain growth and development and its effect on development during the play years.
  4. Identify several factors that contribute to variation in the risk of accidental injury among children.
  5. (Changing Policy) Explain what is meant by "injury control," and describe some measures that have significantly reduced accidental death rates for children.
  6. Explain how the maturation of the visual pathways and cerebral hemisphere enhances eye-hand coordination at age 4 and allows for formal education to begin at about age 6.
  7. Distinguish between gross and fine motor skills, and discuss the development of each during the play years.
  8. (In Person) Discuss the significance of drawing during the play years.  
  9. Identify the various categories of child maltreatment, and discuss several factors that contribute to its occurrence.
  10. (text and A Life-Span View) Discuss the consequences of child maltreatment and the inevitability of intergenerational transmission of maltreatment.
  11. Discuss foster care, kinship care, and adoption as intervention options in cases of child maltreatment.
  12. Compare and contrast three approaches to the prevention of child maltreatment.

 Chapter 9:  The Play Years: Cognitive Development

  1. Describe and discuss the major characteristics of preoperational thought, according to Piaget.
  2. Contrast Vygotsky's views on cognitive development with those of Piaget, focusing on Vygotsky's concept of guided participation.
  3. Explain the significance of scaffolding and the zone of proximal development in promoting cognitive growth.
  4. Describe Vygotsky's view of the role of language in cognitive growth.
  5. (Research Report) Compare and contrast the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, and explain why findings have led to qualification or revision of Piaget's description of cognition during the play years.
  6. Discuss young children's memory abilities and limitations, noting the role of meaning in their ability to recall events.
  7. Discuss the reliability of children's eyewitness testimony.
  8. Explain the typical preschool child's theory of mind, notion how it is affected by culture and context.
  9. (text and A Life-Span View) Explain the role of fast mapping in children's acquisition of language.
  10. Discuss the development of grammar during the play years, and discuss limitations in the young child's language abilities
  11. (text and In Person) Identify the characteristics of a high-quality preschool program, and discuss the long-term benefits of preschool education for the child and his or her family.


Chapter 10:  The Play Years: Psychosocial Development

  1. Discuss the relationship between the child's developing sense of self and social awareness.
  2. (Changing Policy) Discuss the impact of being an only child on cognitive and social development.
  3. Discuss emotional development during early childhood, focusing on emotional regulation.
  4. Differentiate four types of aggression during the play years, and explain why certain types are more troubling to develop mentalists than others.
  5. (A Life-Span View) Discuss how watching television contributes to the development of aggression and other antisocial behaviors.
  6. Discuss the nature and significance of rough-and-tumble and sociodramatic play during the play years.
  7. Compare and contrast three classic patterns of parenting and their effect on children.
  8. Discuss the pros and cons of punishment, and describe the most effective method for disciplining a child.  
  9. (Research Report) Discuss the relationship between punishment at home and aggression at school.
  10. Describe the developmental progression of gender awareness in young children.
  11. Summarize five theories of gender role development during the play years, noting important contributions of each.


Chapter 11:  The School Years: Biosocial Development

  1. Describe normal physical growth and development during middle childhood, and account for the usual variations among children.
  2. Discuss the problems - both physical and psychological - of obese children in middle childhood.
  3. (Research Report) Identify the major causes of obesity, and outline the best approaches to treating obesity.
  4. (Changing Policy) Discuss the causes, treatments, and impact asthma on development during the school years.
  5. Describe motor-skill development during the school years, focusing on variations due to gender, culture, and genetics.
  6. Explain how achievement and aptitude tests are used in evaluating individual differences in cognitive growth, and discuss why use of such tests is controversial.  
  7. (A Life Span View) Describe two theories of multiple perspective, and discuss their implications for intelligence testing.
  8. Explain the new developmental psychopathology perspective, and discuss its value in treating children with special needs.
  9. Identify the symptoms of autism, and discuss its possible causes.
  10. Describe how learning disabilities are diagnosed, and identify some of the basic deficiencies.  
  11. Describe the symptoms and possible causes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with aggression.
  12. Discuss the types of treatment available for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.  
  13. (In Person) Describe techniques that have been tried in efforts to educate children with special needs.

Chapter 12: The School Years: Cognitive Development

  1. Describe the components of the information processing system, noting how they interact.
  2. (text and A Life-span View) Discuss advances in selective attention, memory skills, and processing speed during middle childhood.
  3. (text and A Life-span View) Discuss advances in knowledge and metacognition during the school years.
  4. Identify and discuss the logical operations of concrete operational thought, and give examples of how these operations are demonstrated by schoolchildren.
  5. Outline Kohlberg's stage theory of moral development.
  6. Identify and evaluate several criticisms of Kohlberg's theory.
  7. (text and Changing Policy) Discuss variations in the schooling of children, focusing on the developmental approach to education.
  8. Describe the development of communication skills during the school years, noting changing abilities in vocabulary and code-switching.
  9. Identify several conditions that foster the learning of a second language, and describe the best approaches to bilingual education.
  10. Describe how cultural needs and standards direct cognitive growth and have led to changes in how schoolchildren in the United States spend their time.


Chapter 13: The School Years: Psychosocial Development

  1. Identify the common themes or emphases of different theoretical views of the psychosocial development of school-age children.
  2. Define social cognition, and explain how children's theory of mind and emotional understanding evolve during middle childhood.
  3. (In Person) Describe the development of self-understanding during middle childhood and its implications for children's self-esteem.
  4. Discuss the importance of peer groups during the school years, providing examples of how school-age children develop their own subculture and explaining the importance of this development.
  5. Discuss how friendship circles change during the school years.
  6. Discuss the plight of two types of rejected children.
  7. (text and Research Report) Discuss the special needs of bullies and their victims, and describe possible ways of helping such children.
  8. Identify five essential ways that functional families nurture school-age children, and contrast the styles of open and closed families.
  9. (text and A Life-span View) Discuss the impact of divorce on the psychosocial development of the school-age child.
  10. Identify the variables that influence the impact of stresses on schoolchildren.
  11. (Changing Policy) Discuss the impact of poverty and homelessness on the development of school-age children.
  12. Discuss several factors that seem especially important in helping children to cope with stress.

Chapter 14:  Adolescence: Biosocial Development

  1. Outline the biological events of puberty.
  2. Discuss the emotional and psychosocial impact of pubertal hormones.
  3. (text and A Lifespan View) Identify several factors that influence the onset of puberty.
  4. Describe the growth spurt in both male and the female adolescent, focusing on changes in body weight and height.
  5. Describe the changes in the body's internal organ systems that accompany the growth spurt.
  6. Discuss the nutritional needs and problems of adolescents.
  7. Discuss the development of the primary sex characteristics in males and females during puberty.
  8. (In Person) Discuss how adolescents respond to the sexual changes of puberty and how these reactions have changed over the decades.
  9. Discuss the development of the secondary sex characteristics in males and females during puberty.
  10. (Research Report) Discuss the adolescent's preoccupation with body image and the problems that sometimes arise in the development of a healthy body image.
  11. Discuss sexual abuse, noting its prevalence and consequences for development.
  12. (text and Changing Policy) Discuss drug use among adolescents today, including its prevalence, its significance for development, and the best methods of prevention.

Chapter 15: Adolescence: Cognitive Development

  1. Describe advances in thinking during adolescence.
  2. Describe evidence of formal operational thinking during adolescence, and provide examples of adolescents' emerging ability to reason deductively and inductively.
  3. Discuss adolescent egocentrism, and give three examples of egocentric fantasies or fables.
  4. Evaluate the typical secondary school's ability to meet the cognitive needs of the typical adolescent.
  5. Discuss the impact of competitive and cooperative learning on the typical adolescent.
  6. Briefly discuss the typical adolescent's inability to make major life decisions.
  7. (Changing Policy) Discuss whether part-time employment is advisable for adolescents.
  8. Explain how adolescent thinking contributes to adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease.
  9. (text and A Life Span View) Discuss the need for better sex education in the schools and the role of parents as sex educators.


Chapter 16: Adolescence: Psychosocial Development

  1. Describe the development of identity during adolescence.
  2. Describe the five major identity statuses, and give examples of each.
  3. (text and In Person) Discuss the problems of identity formation encountered by minority adolescents.
  4. Discuss parental influences on identity formation, including the effect of parent-adolescent conflict and other aspects of family functioning.
  1. Discuss the constructive functions of peer relationships and close friendships during adolescence and the unique challenges faced by immigrants.
  2. (text and Research report) Discuss the development of intimate relationships during adolescence, including the challenges faced by gay and lesbian adolescents.
  3. Discuss adolescent suicide, noting its incidence and prevalence, gender and national variations, and contributing factors.
  1. (text and Changing Policy) Discuss delinquency among adolescents today, noting its incidence and prevalence, significance for later development, and best approaches for prevention or treatment.
  2. Discuss the theme of this text as demonstrated by adolescent development.

Chapter 17: Early Adulthood: Biosocial Development

  1. Describe the changes in growth, strength, and overall health that occur during early adulthood.
  2. Describe age-related changes in physical appearance that become noticeable by the late 20s.
  3. Discuss changes in the efficiency of various body functions, focusing on the significance of these changes for the individual.  
  4. (text and A Life-Span View) Identify age-related trends in the sexual responsiveness of both men and women during the decades from 20 to 40.
  5. Discuss the use of contraceptives during young adulthood.
  6. (text and In Person) Describe the main causes of infertility in men and women, and list several techniques used to treat this problem, noting some of the issues raised by the techniques.
  7. Discuss the causes and consequences of drub abuse during early adulthood.
  8. (text and Changing Policy) Identify the potentially harmful effects of repeated dieting.
  9. Describe the typical victims of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, and discuss possible explanations for these disorders.
  10. Explain how restrictive stereotypes of "masculine" behavior may be related to the self-destructive behaviors of many young Americans.
  11. (text and Research Report) Discuss the factors that may determine whether a young male adult will suffer a violent death.

Chapter 18: Early Adulthood: Cognitive Development

  1. Describe three approaches to the study of adult cognition.
  2. Identify the main characteristics of postformal thought, and tell how it differs from formal operational thought.
  3. (text and Research Report) Explain how emotionally charged problems differentiate adolescent and adult reasoning.
  4. Define dialectical thought, and give examples of its usefulness.
  5. Evaluate or draw a conclusion about whether postformal thought represents a separate stage of development.
  6. Explain Carol Gilligan's view of how moral reasoning changes during adulthood.
  7. (A Life-Span View) Briefly describe the six stages of faith outlined by James Fowler.
  8. Explain how the Defining Issues Test helps relate moral development to other aspects of adult cognition and life satisfaction.
  9. Discuss the relationship between cognitive growth and higher education.
  10. (text and Changing Policy) Compare college students today with their counterparts of a decade or two ago, and explain how cheating reflects students' value systems.
  11. (text and In Person) Discuss how life events may trigger new patterns of thinking and result in cognitive growth.

Chapter 19: Early Adulthood: Psychosocial Development

  1. Identify the two basic tasks, or crises, of adulthood and explain how the viewpoint of most developmentalists regarding adult stages has shifted.
  2. Explain how the social clock influences the timing of important events during early adulthood.
  3. (text and In-Person) Review the developmental course of friendship during adulthood, noting factors that promote friendship, gender differences in friendship patterns, and the impact of marriage on friendships.
  4. (Research Report) Identify Sternberg's three components of love and discuss the pattern by which they develop in relationships.
  5. Discuss the impact of cohabitation on relationships, and identify the factors that influence marital success.
  6. Discuss the impact of social systems on divorce, the reasons for today's rising divorce rate, and the usual impact of divorce on families.
  7. Discuss the adjustment problems that accompany divorce, especially those of the custodial parent.
  8. (A Life-Span View) Discuss spouse abuse, focusing on its forms, contributing factors, and prevention.
  9. Discuss the importance of work to the individual and whether the traditional stages of the career cycle are pertinent to today's workers.
  10. Identify possible reasons for the variability in the job cycle today and the developmental implications for adults just entering the work force.
  11. Discuss the myths, challenges, and opportunities of dual-earner family life.
  12. Focusing on broad themes, describe the stages of the family life cycle, noting the rewards and challenges of each stage.
  13. Discuss the special challenges facing stepparents, adoptive parents, and foster parents.

Chapter 20: Middle Adulthood: Biosocial Development

  1. Identify the typical physical changes of middle adulthood, and discuss their impact.
  2. Describe how the functions of the sense organs and vital body systems change during middle adulthood.
  3. (text and Research Report) Describe the relationship between certain lifestyle factors - smoking, alcohol use, nutrition, weight, and exercise - and health.
  4. Differentiate four measures of health, and expalin the concept of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs).
  5. Explain how variations in health are related to ethnicity.
  6. (Changing Policy) Explain why group differences in health are often misattributed to genes and ancestry.  
  7. Cite sex differences in mortality and morbidity rates and several ways in which these differences have been exacerbated by the medical community.
  8. Identify the typical changes that occur in the sexual-reproductive system during middle adulthood, and describe the benefits of hormone replacement therapy.
  9. (A Life Span View) Discuss historical changes in the psychological impact of menopause.
  10. Identify age-related changes in sexual expression.


Chapter 21: Middle Adulthood: Cognitive Development

  1. Distinguish between fluid and crystallized intelligence and explain how each is affected by age.
  2. Differentiate the three fundamental forms of intelligence described by Robert Sternberg, and discuss how each tends to vary over the life span.
  3. (Research Report) Explain the concept of selective optimization with compensation.
  4. Outline Howard Gardner's theory of intelligence, noting the impact of genes, culture, and aging on the various dimensions of intelligence.
  5. Discuss the multidirectionality of intelligence.
  6. (A Life Span View and In Person) Briefly trace the history of the controversy regarding adult intelligence, explain how Schaie's cross-sequential research corrected for some of the problems of cross-sectional and longitudinal research, and discuss his findings regarding adult intelligence.
  7. Explain how and why context and cohort affect intellectual development during adulthood.
  8. Discuss the plasticity of intelligence, and describe how the cognitive processes of experts differ from those of novices.

Chapter 22: Middle Adulthood: Psychosocial Development

  1. Discuss the changes that normally occur during middle age, including whether midlife is inevitably a time of crisis.
  2. (A Life Span View) Explain why middle-aged adults are considered the "sandwich generation".
  3. Describe the Big Five clusters of personality traits, and discuss reasons for their relative stability during adulthood.
  4. (text and In Person) Explain how an ecological niche interacts with personality.
  5. Explain the tendency toward gender role convergence during middle age.
  6. Characterize the relationship between middle-aged adults and the older and younger generations.
  7. Differentiate three patterns of grandparent-grandchild relationships, and discuss historical trends in their prevalence.
  8. Discuss how and why marital relationships tend to change during middle adulthood.
  9. Discuss the impact of divorce and remarriage during middle adulthood, including reasons for the high divorce rate among the remarried.
  10. Describe how the balance among work, family, and self often shifts during middle adulthood.

Chapter 23: Late Adulthood: Biosocial Development

  1. Define ageism, and discuss some of the factors that contribute to ageism in our society.
  2. (A Lifespan View) Describe ongoing changes in the age distribution of the American population
  3. (text and In Person) Differentiate between primary and secondary aging, and list several characteristic effects of aging on the individual's appearance.
  4. Describe age-related problems in vision and hearing.
  5. (text and Research Report) Discuss the adjustments older adults may have to make in various areas of life in order to maintain optimal functioning.
  6. Identify several reasons that the incidence of chronic and acute diseases increases significantly with age, and explain the concept of compression of morbidity.
  7. Outline the wear-and-tear and cellular accidents theories of aging.
  8. Explain how the immune system functions and describe age-related changes in its functioning.
  9. Explain senescence from an epigenetic systems theory perspective.
  10. Discuss the role of genetics in aging, and explain what the Hayflick limit is and how it supports the idea of a genetic clock.
  11. Identify lifestyle characteristics associated with the healthy, long-lived adult.
  12. (Changing Policy) Discuss nutritional and exercise needs during late adulthood, and suggest how these might best be met.

Chapter 24: Late Adulthood: Cognitive Development

  1. Summarize the laboratory findings regarding changes in the sensitivity of the sensory register and the capacity of working memory during late adulthood.
  2. Summarize the laboratory findings regarding changes in teh older adult's ability to access the knowledge base and to use control processes efficiently.
  3. (A Lifespan View) Discuss the difficulties in assessing long-term memory, and describe research findings regarding older adults' long-term memory.
  4. Suggest several reasons, other than the aging process itself, that might contribute to age-related declines in cognitive functioning.
  5. Describe age-related changes in the brain's size, weight, number of cells, and speed of processing.
  6. (Research Report) Summarize and critique the findings of studies showing that special training can reduce the intellectual decrements associated with aging.
  7. Characterize and explain discrepancies between how the elderly perform on memory and problem-solving tasks in the laboratory, on the one hand, and in daily life, on the other.
  8. (text and Changing Policy) Discuss the impact of nursing homes on the practical competencies of older adults and whether age-related declines in memory and processing speed are inevitable.
  9. Identify the two most common forms of dementia, and discuss the differences between them.
  10. Identify and describe the subcortical dementia, and discuss the difference between them.
  11. Discuss the claims of developmentalists regarding the possibility of positive cognitive development during late adulthood, and cite several areas of life in which such development may occur.

Chapter 25: Late Adulthood: Psychosocial Development

  1. Explain the central promises of self theories of psychosocial development during late adulthood.
  2. Discuss Erikson's stages of integrity versus despair and the process of achieving integrity in old age.
  3. Identify and describe the stratification theories of psychosocial development during late adulthood.
  4. Discuss the dynamic theories of late adulthood.
  5. Discuss the impact of retirement on the individual and the factors that influence adjustment to this event.
  6. List and discuss several alternatives sources of achievement during late adulthood.
  7. (Changing Policy) Explain how the economic circumstances of the elderly have changed in recent years, and discuss the issue of generational equity.
  8. Describe the components of the social convoy, and explain this convoy's increasing importance during late adulthood.
  9. Discuss how, and why, marriage relationships tend to change as people grow old.
  10. Discuss the impact of being old and single (never-married, divorced, or widowed) on both women and men.
  11. (text and In Person) Discuss the relationship between the generations and between siblings, and identify several reasons for current patterns of detachment.
  12. Describe the frail elderly, and explain why their number is growing.
  13. (text and A Lifespan View) Identify and discuss four factors that may protect the elderly from frailty.
  14. Discuss alternative care arrangements for the frail elderly, identifying some of the potential advantages and disadvantages of each.
  15. (Research Report) Describe the typical case of elder abuse.

Epilogue: Death and Dying

  1. Briefly describe Kubler-Ross's stages of dying, and discuss those stages in light of more recent research.
  2. (A Lifespan View) Discuss age-related differences in the conceptualization of death.
  3. Discuss the steps that patients, family members, and medical personnel can take to plan for a swift, pain-free, and dignified death.
  4. (text and Changing Policy) Explain the concept of palliative care, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of hospices.
  5. (text and Research Report) Discuss issues surrounding physician-assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia.
  6. Describe some cultural and religious variations in how death is viewed and treated.
  7. (text and In Person) Describe recent changes in the mourning process, and suggest steps that can be taken in helping someone to recover from bereavement.


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