Instructor: Dr. Tabbye Chavous
Office: 2000 East Hall; 615-0157
Office Hours: Tuesdays 1-2
Wednesdays 2:30-3:30, or by appointment
The required readings will be on reserve at Shapiro library (2nd floor), and most will be available electronically/online.
Background and Course Objectives
According to an old Indian proverb, three blind men were asked to describe an elephant on the basis of touching the animal. One man touched the trunk of the elephant and stated that "the animal is long, snakelike, and flexible". Another man touched the body of the elephant and described the animal as being "like a smooth bolder". The third man touched the tail of the elephant and concluded that the animal was "small, narrow, and hairy".
In fact, all three men were accurate in describing what they touched, yet each provided only a fragmented picture of what an elephant looks like as a whole. The story above parallels the difficulties in describing and examining the functions and impacts of educational contexts. Specifically, school context has been described in terms of the different components that it is comprised of, as well as from the perspectives of those with differing views of those components. Like the blind men, researchers, policy makers, and educators often discuss the effects of schools or school climate when, in fact, they have examined only one factor or set of factors that influences outcomes of interest.
The present course is designed to provide a forum for examining issues of conceptualizing, measuring, and evaluating the impact of educational settings and the current state of research in these areas. The class will consider the theory and research that pertains both to what is experienced by "most" members of the settings and to important individual differences in their experience. Both theory and research as it pertains to normative processes will be considered from both a developmental and an ecological perspective. Particular emphasis will be placed on the interaction between the individual and her/his educational context. Also, other contexts within and outside the educational setting that may interact with educational contexts will be touched upon (i.e., school, peer groups, neighborhood, family structures). A survey of some of the specific problems and contemporary issues of concern related to the impact of schools will be discussed within these contexts (e.g., school adjustment and achievement). In addition the course will highlight issues of culture and ethnicity. Though attention will be given to specific problems such as the aforementioned issues, this course cannot offer a comprehensive coverage of those fields. The premise here is that one can best understand the impact of school settings only after one has an understanding of the complexities in defining and measuring what makes-up the settings and how those different components may be related to different outcomes for different individuals and groups.
The main objectives of the course are to: (1) strengthen and broaden the student's knowledge base of research and theory in the organization and functioning of schools; (2) encourage the student to think critically about theory and research; (3) consider contemporary issues and concerns of the field; (4) consider the practical implications of current research and policy; and (5) provide an arena for the student to explore, crystallize, and express his or her own views concerning the field.
Course readings include selections from various texts as well as a combination of theoretical and review articles on the topics and empirical articles from the psychological and educational literature. There will be discussion questions provided each week to focus and guide reading of the articles. Readings will stress the theoretical and empirical work and our discussion will focus on the analysis and synthesis of the different theories and research findings.
Class participation: 25 %
Short Reflection papers 20%
Mid-term Exam 20%
In-Class Debates: 15%
Final Paper and Presentation: 20%
"POPS" + 10 bonus pts
A. Class Participation (25% of final grade)
This class depends in large part on active participation from all students. This includes reading the material before class, coming to class, and participating in class discussions focused on the readings. Evaluation will be based both on attendance and the quality and quantity of comments and questions derived from the readings and lectures. Participation will be rated on a scale of 0-3 for each class. The lowest rating will be dropped at the end of the semester. If you have a difficult time volunteering to speak in class, please come see me during the first two weeks of the semester and we can talk about ways to contribute to discussion. Discussion questions will be provided for many of the readings, and I encourage you to write down comments and questions as you read the chapters and articles. Be prepared to discuss and argue your views, and to challenge those of others (including mine). From time to time, I will call on those students who do not appear to be contributing to class discussions.
B. Reflection papers (20% of grade, 10% each). You will submit two thought papers on a topic covered in class. The purpose of these assignments is for you to critically evaluate the class readings. You will be required to submit these papers for selected weeks. These papers should be between 3-4 pages each in length (double-spaced, typed, standard 1-inch margins, 12 pt font). Length is not as important as the quality of your discussion. You may choose the reading weeks to be covered by your papers from those available (see schedule). However, note that one of the papers will be due by October 23rd, and the other is due before or on the reading day of December 4.
These papers must be turned in when due - NO late papers will be accepted. Papers are due on the day the readings are discussed. There will be several possible options for reflection paper assignments, and students can choose which two to complete based on interest and time.
C. Mid-term Exam
There will be a take home mid-term which will account for 20% of your final grade. The exams will consist of several questions drawn from the readings, class lectures, and class discussions from which students may choose three to answer. Further information about and guidelines for the exam will be provided in class. Make-up exams may be given if the student has a doctor's written excuse (with telephone number) verifying that a medical emergency prevented the student from taking the exam. Any form of cheating whatsoever will result in, at minimum, a zero on the test.
D. In-Class Debates (15% of grade). The purpose of this assignment is to expose you to some of the important issues concerning the study of school contexts, and to give you a good appreciation of the opposing sides of the various issues. Because it typically is difficult to conduct a successful debate with yourself, there will be group work for this assignment. A list of broad issues will be provided in class (along with the dates of the presentations), but it is also possible to choose your own issue that is relevant to our understanding of the course topics with the permission of the instructor (date of presentation will be selected to correspond best with topic). The readings will offer some material that can be used in the presentation and debate, but it would be highly desirable for groups to go beyond the course readings. In addition, the instructor will provide the class with readings on the debate topic that should be read for the day of the debate. Evaluation will be based on accuracy, thoroughness, clarity, and creativity, as well as on the extent to which the presentation and debate stimulate interest among your classmates. This assignment will count for 15% of your final grade. A group written summary (2 to 4 typed double-spaced pages) should provide a summary of the presentation, following the same format as the presentation. A detailed description of the requirements will be provided in class. For guide, see debate.htm
Final Project (20% of final grade): The final project will be a written discussion of a major educational issue or event occurring presently or recently at the local, state, or national level. This paper should be between 8 and 10 pages in length (double spaced, 1 inch margins, 12 pt font). You may use class readings with this assignment, but you also should go beyond class readings by using a variety of media sources. Detailed information regarding this assignment will be provided in class. A written statement of your proposed topic is due by November 30, and this statement should include a brief summary and outline of your proposed paper. The final paper is due Friday, December 15th by 5pm.
Option 1: A "traditional" research paper on a topic currently relevant in education - this would incorporate the basic introduction, review, and conclusion sections, but also should include discussion of the implications of this issue for state or local functioning/policy. For instance, given what you have demonstrated about your particular topic through your literature review, how might this issue affect students, teachers, and/or communities nationally and in Michigan, specifically? Is there evidence of such effects already (as evidenced by information from local/national media, research, etc.)?
Option 2: The "West Wing" assignment - you should take a particular policy relevant topic in education, and based on your research, you should advise your candidate (at the state or national level) on what position to take and how to act on that particular issue. So, you should be prepared with the "pros" and "cons" of the particular position you choose and be prepared to defend your choice of how those "pros" outweigh the "cons." In other words, you should prepare your candidate to address both supporters of the position you shoose as well as those who might oppose it.
Option 3: A policy-research comparison- you select a particular topic in education that has specific policies associated with it and discuss the extent to which that policy is consistent or not consistent with "what we know" from educational and social science research related to that topic. (It may be enlightening to some the extent to which legal/social policy and social science is informed or not informed by theory and/or research). For instance, the policy around teacher incentives, for example, could be related to research on motivation (e.g., extrinsic versus intrinsic motivation) and/or on research related to the impact of community/school level poverty/resources on student performance.
Option 4: (with permission of instructor) - a fourth option would be to do a final paper based in part on projects such as honors theses. This could be approved only if the topic is appropriate and relevant to educational issues and the issue is discussed with other involved faculty (e.g., honors advisors). (This would have to be discussed with me beforehand, however).
(Note: schedule and assignments may change somewhat according to the size and composition of the class)
Links in this schedule- Go to: #week1 #week2 #week3 #week4 #week5
#week6 #week7 #week8 #week9 #week10 #week11 #week12 #week13 #week14 #week15
Discussion question links
Week 2 discuss2.htm; Week 2 class discussion (climate.htm); Week 3 (Monday) discuss3.htm; Week 4 (Monday) discuss4.htm ; for Week 4 (Wednesday) see roles under 9/27; Week 5 (Monday) week5.htm; Week 6 discussion questions week6_gn.htm ; clark.htm; Week 7 discussion questions week7_dq.htm; Week 13 notes trans1.htm, Week 14 (Monday) assignment college.htm
Week 1 - Wednesday 9/6
Week 2 Theories of Schooling and School Organization: What are schools and what do they do?
Monday September 11 -
Bradley, B.; Gore, A, Bush, G.W., Keyes, A., McCain, J. (Feb 25, 2000). Q&A: The candidates on college issues. The Chronicle of Higher Education. candidat.htm
Schleef, D. (2000). "That's a good question!" Exploring motivations for law and business school choice. Sociology of Education, 73(3). scleef.pdf
Selections from Parelius, R.J., & Parelius, P. (1987). The sociology of education. The Sociology of Education. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Enomoto, E. (1997). Schools as nested communities. Urban Education. enomoto.pdf
Wednesday September 13 - School/Organizational Climate and Culture - What is it? (For discussion questions, see discuss2.htm )
Freiberg, H. (1998). Measuring school climate: Let me count the ways. Educational Leadership, 56(1), 22-26. freiberg.pdf
Rosenblatt, J. , & Furlong, M. (1997). Assessing the reliability and validity of student self-reports of campus violence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 26 (2), 187-202. rosenbla.pdf
Slaughter-Defoe, D., Carlson, K. (1996). Young African American and Latino children in high-poverty urban schools: How they perceive school climate. The Journal of Negro Education, 65(1), 60-70. defoe.pdf
For class discussion summary on school climate, see climate.htm
Week 3 MACROLEVEL ISSUES
September 18- What should schools do? What makes a school effective? (For discussion questions, see discuss3.htm )
Parelius, R.J., & Parelius, P. (1987). Chapter 2. Comparative Perspectives. The Sociology of Education. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (Given out in class)
Noack, E. (1999). Comparing U.S. and German education: Like apples and sauerkraut. Phi Delta Kappan. noack.pdf
Uline, C.L Miller, D.M., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (1998). School effectiveness: The underlying dimensions. Educational Administration Quarterly, 34(4), 462-483.
Film: "Preschool in Three Cultures"
September 20 - Impact of School Climate and Culture
Lee, V.E., Chow-Hoy, T.K., Burkam, D.T., Geverdt, D., & Smerdon, B.A. (1998). Sector differences in high school course taking: A private school or Catholic school effect? Sociology of Education, 71(4), 314-335. lee_c.pdf
Love, P. (1998). Cultural barriers facing lesbian, gay, and bisexual students at a Catholic college. The Journal of Higher Education, 69(3). love.pdf
Kiviat, B. (2000). Somewhere over the rainbow, controversy flies. The Chronicle of Higher Education. kiviat.htm
Mok, M., & Flynn, M. (1998). Effect of Catholic school culture on students' achievement in the higher school certificate examination: A multilevel path analysis. Educational Psychology, 18(4), 409-432. mok.pdf
Chatman, J.A., Polzer, J.T., Barsade, S.G., & Neale, M.A. (1998). Being different yet feeling similar: The influence of demographic composition and organizational culture on work processes and outcomes. Administrative Science Quarterly. chatman.pdf
- see revision comments from 9/25 at privasal.htm
Week 4- Ecological Factors: Culture, Climate, and Structure (see discussion questions at discuss4.htm )
Monday September 25 - see today's in-class notes at notes25.htm; also revisit notes from week 2 at orgpsych.htm
Lawson, R., & Shen, Z. (1998). Ch 3: Organizational culture. In R. Lawson and Z. Shen Organizational psychology: Foundations and Applications.
(given out in previous class)
Wednesday September 27
"Discussion Panel" on School Accountability for Educational Success** (see roles below)
Below are some possible options for resources to use for class discussion points. Every reading may not be relevant or applicable for your particular perspective. These are primarily for providing you with an overview of different perspectives on school accountability. You may choose to use them and/or other sources of perspectives and information.
Hanushek, E. (1997). Applying performance incentives to schools for disadvantaged populations Education and Urban Society. incentiv.pdf
Hanushek, E. (1994) Schools need incentives, not more money. Wall Street Journal. incent2.htm
Reich, R. (2000). One Education Does Not Fit All. New York Times; account1.htm
Alexander, F.K. (2000). The changing face of accountability. The Journal of Higher Education. account2.htm
Rallis, & MacMullen (2000). Inquiry-minded schools: Opening doors for accountability. Phi Delta Kappan. account3.htm
Gorman, S. (1999). How should teachers be evaluated? National Journal. account4.htm
Sewall, A. (1999). The two faces of accountability. National Forum. account5.htm
Zmuda, A. & Tomaino, M. (1999). A contract for the high school classroom. Educational Leadership account6.htm
Chris Pipho (1999). High-stakes accountability. Phi Delta Kappan. account7.htm
**Of course, you should look to other sources (popular, scientific, and anecdotal/personal) as well. For example, your own experiences, your parents, teachers you know, administrators you know, or political figures you may know would be excellent sources of information as well.
Week 5 - The Impact of Structure, Resources, and Context
Monday October 2 - ** (revised 10/1/00; note subsequent revisions of course reading schedule)
***NO CLASS HELD TODAY
Wednesday October 4
Brint, S. (1998). Schools and social selection: Opportunity. In Schools and Societies. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. (This reading is available outside instructor's office, East Hall 2000)
Lee, V.E., Smith, J.B., Croninger, R.G. (1997). How high school organization influences the equitable distribution of learning in mathematics and science. Sociology of Education, 70(2), 128-150. lee_hs.pdf
Broaded, C M. (1997). The limits and possibilities of tracking: Some evidence from Taiwan,.Sociology of Education, 70(1), 36-53. broaded.pdf or
Jones, J., Vanfossen, B., Ensminger, M. (1995). Individual and organizational predictors of high school track placement. Sociology of Education, 68(4). jones.htm
Griffith, J. (1998). The relation of school structure and social environment to parent involvement in elementary schools. The Elementary School Journal, 99(1), 53-80. griffith_p.pdf
Hanushek, Eric A. (1997). Assessing the effects of school resources on student performance: An update. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19, 141- 164.
Roscigno, V.J., Ainsworth-Darnell, J.W. (1999). Race, cultural capital, and educational resources: Persistent inequalities and achievement returns. Sociology of Education, 72(3), 158-178. roscigno.pdf
Week 6- Structure and Gender
Monday October 9 - for discussion questions, see week6_gn.htm
Brown & Russo (1999). Single sex schools, the law and school reform. brown.pdf
Lee, V., Marks, H.M, Byrd, T. (1994). Sexism in single-sex and coeducational independent secondary school classrooms. Sociology of Education. lee_g.htm
Evans, L. & Davies, K. (2000). No sissy boys here. Sex Roles. evans.pdf
Kimmel, M. (2000). Saving the males. Gender and Society. kimmel.pdf
Wednesday October 11 - School Leadership
Film: "Lean on Me" (revised 10/10)
- for follow-up information/quotes on Joe Clark, see clark.htm
Week 7 - (**revised 10/11/00)
Monday October 16 - for discussion questions, see week7_dq.htm
* *Emergency Issue **
Schools as Organizations - Implications for Organizational Studies (see orgstud.htm ) (* revised 10/13/00)
Lawson, R., & Shen, Z. (1998). Leadership, power and politics. In Organizational psychology: Foundations and applications (pp. 149-179). Oxford University Press. (reading available outside instructor's office on 10/12 by 12noon)
Griffith, J. (1999). School leadership/climate relation. Educational Administration Quarterly. griffith_l.pdf
Ingersoll, R. (1996). Teachers' decision-making power and school conflict. Sociology of Education, 69(2). ingersoll.pdf
Recommended (*revised 10/9):
Welsh et al. (2000). A macro-level model of school disorder. welsh.pdf
Wednesday October 18 - Schools as Businesses - The Example of Sports in the Academy
- for assignment, see athletics.htm
Nathan (1998). The NCAA: Major barrier to high school reform. nathan.htm or nathan.pdf
Martin van der Werf (Jun 2, 2000). U. of Michigan signs 1-year deal with Nike. The Chronicle of Higher Education. vanderwe.htm
Gerdy, J. (April 10 1995). The case against athletic stipends. Sporting News. gerdy.htm
Meggyesy, D. (2000). Athletes in big-time college sport. Society, 37(3), 24-28. meggyesy.htm
Mahony, D. (1999). Collective reaction to injustice in intercollegiate athletics: Injustice to women and student athletes as test cases. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 23(3), 328-352. mahoney.htm
Childress, H. (1998). Seventeen reasons why football is better than high school. Phi Delta Kappan, 79 (8), 616-619. childress.htm
Suggs, W. (Dec 3 1999). Scandals force colleges to reassess roles of academic advisers for athletes. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 46(15), A51-A53. suggs2.htm
Suggs, W. (May 5, 2000). Professor charges U. of Tennessee with shortchanging athletes academically. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 46(35). suggs.htm
Guest Speaker: "NCAA and Reform"
Week 8 - Schools as Guardians
Monday October 23
Revisiting School Leadership -
Due to the "emergency topic" last week, we will use this day to discuss the readings on school leadership and the film "Lean on Me"
Please review the readings and your film notes from that class day
(also, note the subsequent changes in scheduling)
Wednesday October 25
Brint, S. (1998). Schools and socialization. In Schools and Societies. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press.Brint, S. (1998).
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Week 9 - for debate guide, see debate.htm ; for class email list, see email.htm
Monday October 30
Everyone should read these in preparation for debate:
Barras, B. & Lyman, S. (2000). Silence of the lambs: How can we get students to report pending violence? Education. barras.htm
Kramer, R. (2000). Poverty, inequality, and youth violence. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 567, 123-139. kramer.htm
Morse, J. (2000). Looking for trouble. Time. morse.pdf
McCarthy, M. & Webb, D. (2000). Legal principles in preventing and responding to school violence. NASSP Bulletin. mcarthy.pdf
O'Meara, K. (2000). Rooting out the bad seeds. Insight. omeara.pdf
Simpson, M. (2000). After the shootings, the lawsuits. NEA Today. simpson.htm
Anonymous (1999). Asia: Japan's unruly classrooms. The Economist. anon.htm
*Reflection paper 1 or 2 option (you may use these readings for reflection paper 1 or reflection paper 2 if you have already turned in paper 1)
Debate 1- Safety and Privacy
Team 1: Andrea, Olivia, Beth, Carmen
Position: Schools and authorities should use whatever measures they need to to insure the safety of the school and community.
Schools should be held the most accountable for violent events that occur within its walls. Because children are there for a large part of the day, the schools should insure that all students are safe. Further, schools should hold some responsiblity in conveying norms about social responsibility and morals to children and youth.
Team 2: Nora, Glen, Marisa, Kenny, Matana
Position: Schools and authorities should not use measures that violate the privacy and individual rights of students and families.
Schools should not be held the most accountable for violent events that occur within its walls. Schools cannot control parenting quality and community structures (e.g., poverty, crime rate, community tensions) that might result in negative behavior. Schools should not be the primary source of values teaching, but instead, parents and communities should take the lead in socializing youth.
Schools and Policy on Testing and Standards
Wednesday November 1
Betts, J. (1998). The two legged stool: The neglected role of educational standards... betts.pdf
Murnane & Levy (1998). Standards, information, and the demand for student achievement. munane.pdf
Black (1998). Measuring the value of better schools. black.pdf
Patrick W Lee (1999). In their own voices: An ethnographic study of low-achieving students within the context of school reform. Urban Education. plee.htm or plee.pdf
Monday November 6- for information about the U of M lawsuits, see http://www.umich.edu/~urel/admissions/index.html
Michaelson, M. (1999). Affirmative action in college and university admissions: Yes. National Forum. michaelson.htm
Reisberg, L. (Aug 11, 2000). A professor's controversial analysis of why black students are 'losing the race.' The Chronicle of Higher Education. reisberg.htm
Kahlenberg, R. (1998). In search of fairness: A better way. The Washington Monthly. kahlen.htm
Goldfield, D. (Apr 9, 1999). Weaker NCAA standards won't help black athletes. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 45(31). goldfield.htm
Chrispeels, Janet H. (1997). Educational policy implementation in a shifting political climate: The California experience. American Educational Research Journal, 34, 453-481.
Wednesday November 8- Micro-level Issues: Classroom and Interpersonal Processes
Teachers and School Reform - for article outlines and discussion questions, see stereo.htm
Rowan, B., Chiang, F., & Miller, R.J. (1997). Using research on employees' performance to study the effects of teachers on students' achievement. Sociology of Education, 70(4), 256-284. rowan.pdf
Madon, S., Jussim, L., Keiper S., Eccles, J. (1998). The accuracy and power of sex, social class, and ethnic stereotypes: A naturalistic study in person perception. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24 (12), 1304-1318. madon.htm or madon.pdf
Monday November 13 - School choice
Everyone should read these in preparation for the debate:
Hess et al. (2000). Resistance in the trenches... hess.pdf
Rouse (1998). Schools and student achievement: More evidence from the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program. rouse.pdf
Metcalf, K. et al. (1999). Free Market Policies and Public Education: What Is the Cost of Choice? metcalf.htm
Vasudeva et al. (2000). Teachers' perspective on charter school reform. vasudeva.pdf
Debate 2 - School Choice
Team 1: Andrea, Glen, Kenny, Carmen
We are in favor of school choice options such as school vouchers. School choice initiatives are a sensible way of improving public education in that they allow parents to choose what schools their children attend. In contrast to thinking of education as a "one-size-fits-all" model, choice programs offer parents a number of alternatives from which to pick the best educational settings for their children. This approach also would result in a motivating incentive for public schools to improve.
Team 2: Marisa, Beth, Matana, Nora, Olivia
We oppose school choice programs such as voucher systems, as they most often would subsidize the wealthy while directing funding away from public institutions. Further, such programs could result in a larger educational gap between the underclass (including special needs children) and the upperclass. These programs will not be a real incentive for public schools to improve, as the problem is not motivation, but funding and resources in public schools.
The following might be helpful sites for perspectives and information on issues related to this topic (you should feel free to use them as resources and/or bring in other resources):
Wednesday November 15
Film: "Stand and Deliver"
MID_TERM GIVEN OUT
Week 12 -
Monday November - 20
MID-TERM DUE by Tuesday November 21 at 5pm (or Wednesday November 22 by 12noon)
Wednesday November 22- NO CLASS HELD
Week 13 -
Monday November 27 - Interpersonal Processes- Cont'd
Way & Chen (2000). Close and general friendships among African American, Latino, and Asian American adolescents from low income families. Journal of Adolescent Research. way.pdf
Mehan, H. (1998). The study of social interaction in educational settings: Accomplishments and unresolved issues. Human Development, 41(4), 245-269. mehan.htm
Wednesday November 29- Developmental Considerations: School Transitions
for class handout/notes, see trans1.htm
assignment given out - due Monday 12/4, see college.htm
Ramey, S. et al., (1998). Perspectives of former Head Start children and their parents on school and transition to school. The Elementary School Journal. ramey.pdf
Isakson, J., Jarvis, P. (1999). The adjustment of adolescents during the transition into high school: A short-term longitudinal study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. isakson.htm
Newman, B. et al. (2000). The transition to high school. Adolescence, 35(137). newman.pdf
Monday December 4 - Transitions Cont'd (for assignment due for today, see college.htm )
* Discussion of transitions to college
Crowson, R. et al. (2000). The quiet reform in American education: Policy issues and conceptual challenges in the school-to-work transition. Educational Policy. crowson.pdf
Wednesday December 6 - What the future holds: applying the lessons in a changing world
Impact Of Technology:
Bryson, M. De Castell, S. (1998). New technologies and the cultural ecology of primary schooling: Imagining teachers as luddities in/deed. Educational Policy,12(5), 542-567. bryson.htm
Rosenbaum, J.E. & Binder, A. (1997). Do employers really need more educated youth? Sociology of Education, 70. rosen.htm
Paper/Presentation Q & A
In these presentations, the focus will be your paper topics. I feel that the clear expression of ideas to others orally is a valuable skill, just as being able to write a strong paper is a skill. Each of you will have 15 minutes to provide the class with some general background on your topic, an overview of the points you will cover in your final paper, and discussion of your "opinions" about the relevance of this topic for classroom level functioning, school level functioning, and at the level of the larger society/policy arena. The class will offer feedback and questions to you on your topic as well. This activity will allow the class to hear about diverse topics in a more indepth way as well as share their own ideas. So, you also should think of this as an opportunity to get some "pre-feedback" for the final paper. Your paper, therefore, does not have to be in its final state of completion, but you should have, at this point, done enough reading/research to be able to have an informed discussion of your topic. The presentations will make up a portion of your final project grade (15%), so you should organize your ideas and prepare ahead of time.
Final Presentations I
Final Presentations II
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