Anything that does not have life or a conscious is Ajiv.  Ajiva
literally means without a soul and therefore, they cannot accumulate
any karmas.  They have no birth, death, pleasure, or pain; they are
achetan (inert). Examples of Ajivas are: a box, car, fan, television,
photo frame, iron, watch, etc.

The Jain Philosophy has divided Ajivas into the following five
(1)  Dharmastikay (Medium of Motion).
(2)  Adharmastikay (Medium of Rest).
(3)  Akashastikay (Space).
(4)  Pudgalastikay ( Matter).
(5)  Kal (Time).

Dharmastikay is formed from two words: Dharma + Astikay. The term Dharma
here does not refer to religion, but instead it denotes the medium of
motion. Astikay itself is formed of two words: Asti + Kay. Asti means
pradesh (space, body or mode) and Kay means samuh (collection). So,
Astikay means Pradesh samuh or a collection of spaces or regions.

Dharmastikay denotes the medium of motion for things in the universe.
In the absence of this medium, Jivas and other things would be unable
to move.  This medium prevails in lok, but is absent in alok.

This term is also formed of two terms: Adharma + Astikay. Here again,
Adharma does not refer to a lack of religion, but rather it means the
medium of rest. In the absence of  this medium, jivas and other things
would continuously move.  This medium also prevails in lok, but is
absent in alok.

Äkäshtikay is formed of two words: Äkäsh and Astikay. Akash means space
and  so all the space in the universe is called Äkäsh.  In Jainism,
Akash is divided into two parts: Lokakash (Lok) and Alokakash (Alok).
Jiva, Pudgal, Dharmästikäy, and Adharmästikäy exist only in Lokäkäsh.
Alokakash is an empty space and does not contain any Jiva, Pudgal,
Dharmästikäy, and Adharmästikäy.

The word Pudgal is made up of two terms: Pud means supplement (addition)
and Gal means disintegration (division). In other words, what
continuously changes by supplementation and/or division is called
Pudgal or matter. All matter in the universe are called Pudgals.
Pudgal has form or shape. Pudgal can be experienced by touching,
tasting, smelling, or seeing. Like Jiva, Pudgal is also mobile. The
karman particles that attach to our souls are also Pudgal. Pudgal can
only be divided and subdivided to a certain extent that it is not
possible to further subdivide it. This indivisible part of Pudgal,
which is separated from the main pudgal, is called Paramänu. A paramänu
is much more minute than even an atom. When a Paramänu is attached to
the main pudgal, it is called a Pradesh.  These sub-atomic Paramänus
are too minute to be detected by normal vision, but they can be
combined. Thus when a paramänu is combined with one or more other

paramänus, they are called a skandha which are more or less like a
molecules. Part of skandha is called desh. Such sknadhas may be large
or small. Small skandhas may be invisible to the eye, but they can be
seen when the combinations are larger.

5) KAL
Käl means time, which brings forth changes. A child becomes a young
person, a young person becomes an old person, and the old person dies.
In other words, something which is new becomes old, worn, and torn with
time. All of these changes involve time. The past, present, and future
are the different modes of time and are measured in terms of years,
months, days, hours, minutes or seconds. For all practical purposes a
second happens to be the finest measurement of time. Jainism however,
recognizes a very small measurement of time known as samay  which is an
infinitely small part of a second.

The following are measurements of time as adopted by Jainism:
Indivisible time	= 1 Samay
(finest units of measurement)
Countless Samayas	= 1 Ävalikä
16777216  Ävalikäs	= 1 Muhurt
30 Muhurtas		= 1 Day and night
15  Days and nights	= 1 Paksha
2 Pakshas		= 1 Month
12 Months		= 1 Year
Countless years	= 1 Palyopam
10 Crores of Crores of Palyopams	= 1 Sägaropam
10 Crores of Crores of Sägaropams  	= l Utsarpini or 1 Avasarpini.
1 Utsarpini + Avasarpini           	= 1 Kälchakra (One time cycle).

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