The word kashaya (passions) can be broken down into kasha meaning
worldly life and aya meaning gain. The literal meaning of kashaya is to
gain worldly life again which that as long as you have kashayas, the
cycle of birth and death will continue. There are four types of
kashayas namely: Krodha (Anger), Mana (Ego), Maya (Deceit), Lobha
(Greed). These four can be grouped into two categories: 1) Rag
(attachment), 2) Dwesh (hatred). Rag is formed from maya and lobha and
dwesh is formed from krodh and man.
Spiritually, our goal is to lose worldly life and become liberated. When
we develop attachment, hatred or passions for worldly objects, we
hinder the spiritual progress of the soul. When we are under the
influence of passions, our intellect becomes irrational, we become
vicious by nature. Thus, passions are the greatest enemies of the soul
and we should save ourselves from their influences. Affinity,
attachment, hatred, and aversion are the roots of passion. We develop
affinity and hatred for things due to our distorted attitude,
ignorance, and false perception and knowledge. Humans are
opportunistic and when they are deprived of what they like they react
with anger. In the same way when they do not get the fame they think
they deserve, their ego get hurt and they react accordingly. Therefore
liking or affinity known as attachment (rag) can be cited as the one
single cause for passions. One who has conquered attachment or liking
can be said to have conquered everything. It is for that reason that
the Lord Jina is called Vitaragi, one who has conquered attachment (and
Passions are caused by the maturation of previous Mohniya Karma.
Therefore, instead of reacting with more passion we should stay
tranquil in order to break the cycle which causes new karmas. Our aim
should be to stop the new karmas from coming in. If we can do that, the
door to liberation will open.
The four passions: krodh, man, maya, and lobha, are each further
sub-divided into four types, depending upon the of their intensity.
1) Anantanubadh (extremely severe): This obstructs right belief and
conduct and until it is destroyed, we cannot attain right belief or
conduct. Its effects pursue through endless time and always operate
with Darshan Mohniya Karma.
2) Apratyakhanavarana (severe): This obstructs even partial
renunciation but does not affect true belief. While it is active, we
cannot take even partial vows.
3) Pratyakhanavarana (moderate): This obstructs total renunciation,
but does not affect right belief and partial renunciation. While it is
active partial renunciation is possible by us, but total renunciation
(monkshood) is not.
4) Sanjvalana (slight): This obstructs the attainment of total right
conduct, but does not affect right belief and total renunciation. While
it is active, initiation into monkshood and spiritual progress are
possible, but becoming a vitragi is not possible.
When anger flares we lose our sense of judgment. Virtues, love and
forgiveness are destroyed. Anger arises if someone acts against our
wish, if someone causes obstacles in the fulfillment of our desires, or
if someone makes a breach of our trust. Everyone wants to stay away
from those who become angry easily. Due to anger, friends becomes
foes. No one wants to help an angry person, nor does anyone love him.
Anger nourishes revenge and instead of an angry nature we should have a
forgiving and peaceful nature. Not only is anger harmful in this life,
but it can bring bitter consequences in our next lives too. Sometimes,
virtuous people become angry, but they immediately calm down and ask
for forgiveness from the people with whom they became angry. We should
do the same. Thus, by following their example the sin caused by anger
would be removed. We should cultivate virtues such as forgiveness,
penance, and repentance.
A greedy person is not satisfied with what he has. To get more, the
person may use all kind of means without caring for others. We should
not forget, that our gain is a loss of others. Greed does not let us
give anything away, even to the needy people. We should be content
with what we have and only accumulate to meet our needs. We should
develop the habit of helping others by offering what we have. Greed
destroys peace and happiness while caring brings them back.
One who is full of ego looses his sense of judgment and politeness. A
proud man invites his own destruction. We can obtain knowledge only if
we are humble. Humility brings good thoughts where there is no room
for pride or ego. Humility is at the root of religion and it is rather
difficult to develop religious feelings as long as ego exists.
Deceit is responsible for a dishonest life. Due to deceit one loses
friends. Honesty helps to realize the truth. A deceitful person has
little understanding of religion.
There are nine No-kashaya (pseudo-passions) which trigger our passions.
1) Hashya - laughing or joking
2) Rati - pleasure for sensual activities
3) Arati - displeasure for sensual activities
4) Shoka - sorrow
5) Bhaya - fear
6) Jugupsa - disgust
7) Prurushved - cause of sexual desires for women
8) Strived - cause of sexual desires for men
9) Napumsakaved - cause of sexual desires for both men and women
Manifestation of no-kashaya decreases as spiritual uplift begins.
Therefore, we should be careful not only of kashaya, but of no-kashaya,
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