(1) Aaron, Lawrence. 'Viva Baseball': Latino Passion and a Legendary Sport. 2005 [cited 14 December 2005]. Available from

This article gives examples of the way Latino baseball players' names were Americanized, and their reluctance to do so. Lawrence also touched upon the documentary by Dan Klores who made a film about Latino players, personal lives, and an undying passion for the game of baseball. The article highlighted the strong emotions Roberto Clemente's death still evokes thirty years after his death.

(2) Allen, Kevin. NHL Q & A. 2004 [cited 14 December 2005]. Available from .

Allen's article is a question and answer format for those unfamiliar with the convoluted and confusing NHL lockout. He explains the intracacies of the how the NHL found itself in such dire finanical straits, and how both the owners and players were too stubborn to make concessions to one another. While the lockout actually saved some owners money, the effects on a dwindling fan base stifled efforts on marketing itself to unfamiliar populations such as latinos.

(3) Bjarkman, Peter C. 1994. Baseball with a Latin Beat: A History of the Latin American Game. 1st ed. Jefferson, NC: Mcfarland & Company.

Bjarkman's book deals with the history of Latinos in the sport of baseball and their contributions throughout the 20th century. It begins with the major leagues' prohibition of dark-skinned Latinos and continues to the present day. From Roberto Clemente's tragic death to the emegence of Fernando Valenzuela, Bjarkman's book is a chronolgy of events for Latinos in baseball.

(4) Cinisomo, Vincent. 2000. Breaking the Ice. Vol. 13. Sam Verdeja.

Hispanic Magazine interviewed Scott Gomez during his rookie campaign with the New Jersey Devils. The inteview delves into Gomez's upbringing in Alaska as a Latino, and how he feels honored yet humbled to be looked upon as a major Latino representative in the NHL.

(5) Ford, Corey J. The Language of Beisbol. 1999 [cited 14 December 2005]. Available from .

This website delved into the subject of Latinos facing language barriers in the United States as they assimilate to American culture. Issues of isolation and discrimination by the media were highlighted as barriers young Latinos faced in their quest to becoming major league players. The sport of baseball achieved success in Latin America because of its ability to bring Latin Americans out of poverty and their inherent love for the game.

Jamison, Lori. Latino Baseball Players. 2005 [cited 4 November 2005].

Kansas City Chiefs. Tony Gonzalez #88. 2005 [cited 14 December 2005]. Available from .

Latino Legends in Sports. Latino Legends in Sports. 2005 [cited 4 November 2005]. Available from .

(6) Regalado, Samuel O. Hey Chico! The Latin in Major League Baseball. 2002 [cited 4 November 2005]. Available from .

This article also looked into the effects of isolation and homesickness in Latino players as they made the journey to the major leagues. Regalado covered different nationalities in regard to the subject. The differences between the Latin and American press were also uncovered as the Latino ballplayers dealt with the adjustment of being just "news stories" rather than icons in the Latin media.

(7) Strauss, Joe. Agents Rule Over Players. in St. Louis Post-Dispatch [database online]. St. Louis, 2005 [cited 1 December 2005]. Available from .

This Post-Dispatch article investigated the process of finding talent in Latin American countries. Players, teams, and agents all play a part in developing talent and shipping it to the United States. The article deals with the young players love for baseball and how they see it as their way out of poverty. Consequently, the agents and scouts also see the impressionable youth as their meal ticket.

(8) Sullivan, Dean A. 2002. Late Innings: A Documented History of Baseball, 1945-1972. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Late Innings focused on the history of race, barriers and divisions within the game of baseball spanning the 1940s through the 1970s. One story highlighted a game in 1963 between Juan Marichal's San Francisco Giants and Warren Spahn's Milwaukee Braves. Marichal's break-out year occurred in 1963, which ushered in a new era of dominant Latino pitchers. As Latinos started to make crucial plays in big games, their personalities became more popular to fans and kids since they proved they were on par with American players.

The Tony Gonzalez Foundation. Biography and Stats. 2003 [cited 14 December 2005]. Available from .

(9) Wieburg, Steve. Fab Five Anniversary Falls Short of Fondness. in USA Today [database online]. United States, 2002 [cited 1 December 2005]. Available from .

The Fab Five's emerged as the men who broke down the normal perception of basketball. Their tumoltuous three year run at the University of Michigan showcased the ability to break down barriers-- similar to the barriers Latinos faced as they entered the major leagues.

(10) Zirin, Dave. Say It Ain't So, Big Leagues. 2005 [cited 4 November 2005]. Available from .

This article from The Nation explored the commercialization of young Latino baseball players and how they can be perceived as nothing more than a commodity. Between false promises from scouts and ill-preparation for life in United States, many Latino players are left by the wayside if their careers do not pan out. A large majority of these players are left without any career aspirations and little education.


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