NaturalismNaturalism is the literary technique of writing and describing characters in stories as related to their natural surroundings. This technique also implies a kind of "objectivity and detachment"  to the characters which are being described. In order to write from a naturalistic approach, the writer studies human behavior in a natural environment through intense observation. The general idea is that human beings should be studied impartially, "without moralizing about their natures."
Generally, naturalism focuses on a select type of characters, generally those of lower income, less education, and generally a working class type of person. Novelists that really practiced this technique were Theodore Dreiser (Sister Carrie), James T. Farrell (Studs Lonigan), Richard Wright (Native Son), and more.